Project Gutenberg's Bacon is Shake-Speare, by Sir Edwin Durning-Lawrence
Copyright laws are changing all over the world. Be sure to check the
copyright laws for your country before downloading or redistributing
this or any other Project Gutenberg eBook.
This header should be the first thing seen when viewing this Project
Gutenberg file. Please do not remove it. Do not change or edit the
header without written permission.
Please read the "legal small print," and other information about the
eBook and Project Gutenberg at the bottom of this file. Included is
important information about your specific rights and restrictions in
how the file may be used. You can also find out about how to make a
donation to Project Gutenberg, and how to get involved.
**Welcome To The World of Free Plain Vanilla Electronic Texts**
**eBooks Readable By Both Humans and By Computers, Since 1971**
*****These eBooks Were Prepared By Thousands of Volunteers!*****
Title: Bacon is Shake-Speare
Author: Sir Edwin Durning-Lawrence
Release Date: February, 2006 [EBook #9847]
[Yes, we are more than one year ahead of schedule]
[This file was first posted on October 24, 2003]
Character set encoding: ISO-8859-1
*** START OF THE PROJECT GUTENBERG EBOOK BACON IS SHAKE-SPEARE ***
Produced by Jonathan Ingram, Graham Smith,
Tapio Riikonen and the Online Distributed Proofreading Team.
[Illustration: Plate I From "Sylva Sylvarum," 1627]
BACON IS SHAKE-SPEARE
SIR EDWIN DURNING-LAWRENCE, BT.
"Every hollow Idol is dethroned by skill,
insinuation and regular approach."
Together with a Reprint of
Bacon's Promus of Formularies and Elegancies.
Collated, with the Original MS. by the late F.B. BICKLEY,
and revised by F.A. HERBERT, of the British Museum.
TO THE READER
The plays known as Shakespeare's are at the present time universally
acknowledged to be the "Greatest birth of time," the grandest
production of the human mind. Their author also is generally
recognised as the greatest genius of all the ages. The more the
marvellous plays are studied, the more wonderful they are seen to be.
Classical scholars are amazed at the prodigious amount of knowledge of
classical lore which they display. Lawyers declare that their author
must take rank among the greatest of lawyers, and must have been
learned not only in the theory of law, but also intimately acquainted
with its forensic practice. In like manner, travellers feel certain
that the author must have visited the foreign cities and countries
which he so minutely and graphically describes.
It is true that at a dark period for English literature certain
critics denied the possibility of Bohemia being accurately described
as by the sea, and pointed out the "manifest absurdity" of speaking
of the "port" at Milan; but a wider knowledge of the actual facts
has vindicated the author at the expense of his unfortunate critics.
It is the same with respect to other matters referred to in the
plays. The expert possessing special knowledge of any subject
invariably discovers that the plays shew that their author was well
acquainted with almost all that was known at the time about that
And the knowledge is so extensive and so varied that it is not too much
to say that there is not a single living man capable of perceiving half
of the learning involved in the production of the plays. One of the
greatest students of law publicly declared, while he was editor of the
_Law Times_, that although he thought that he knew something of law, yet
he was not ashamed to confess that he had not sufficient legal knowledge
or mental capacity to enable him to fully comprehend a quarter of the
law contained in the plays.
Of course, men of small learning, who know very little of classics and
still less of law, do not experience any of these difficulties, because
they are not able to perceive how great is the vast store of learning
exhibited in the plays.
There is also shewn in the plays the most perfect knowledge of Court
etiquette, and of the manners and the methods of the greatest in the
land, a knowledge which none but a courtier moving in the highest
circles could by any possibility have acquired.
In his diary, Wolfe Tone records that the French soldiers who invaded
Ireland behaved exactly like the French soldiers are described as
conducting themselves at Agincourt in the play of "Henry V," and he
exclaims, "It is marvellous!" (Wolfe Tone also adds that Shakespeare
could never have seen a French soldier, but we know that Bacon while in
Paris had had considerable experience of them.)
The mighty author of the immortal plays was gifted with the most
brilliant genius ever conferred upon man. He possessed an intimate and
accurate acquaintance, which could not have been artificially acquired,
with all the intricacies and mysteries of Court life. He had by study
obtained nearly all the learning that could be gained from books. And he
had by travel and experience acquired a knowledge of cities and of men
that has never been surpassed.
Who was in existence at that period who could by any possibility be
supposed to be this universal genius? In the days of Queen Elizabeth,
for the first time in human history, one such man appeared, the man who
is described as the marvel and mystery of the age, and this was the man
known to us under the name of Francis Bacon.
In answer to the demand for a "mechanical proof that Bacon is
Shakespeare" I have added a chapter shewing the meaning of
"Honorificabilitudinitatibus," and I have in Chapter XIV. shewn how
completely the documents recently discovered by Dr. Wallace confirm the
statements which I had made in the previous chapters.
I have also annexed a reprint of Bacon's "Promus," which has recently
been collated with the original manuscript. "Promus" signifies
Storehouse, and the collection of "Fourmes and Elegancyes" stored
therein was largely used by Bacon in the Shakespeare plays, in his own
acknowledged works, and also in some other works for which he was mainly
I trust that students will derive considerable pleasure and profit from
examining the "Promus" and from comparing the words and phrases, as they
are there preserved, with the very greatly extended form in which many
of them finally appeared.
II. The Shackspere Monument, Bust, and Portrait
III. The [so-called] "Signatures"
IV. Contemporary allusions to Shackspere in "Every
Man out of his Humour"; and "As you Like it"
V. Further contemporary allusions in "The return
from Parnassus"; and "Ratsei's Ghost"
VI. Shackspere's Correspondence
VII. Bacon acknowledged to be a Poet
VIII. The Author revealed in the Sonnets
IX. Mr. Sidney Lee, and the Stratford Bust
X. The meaning of the word "Honorificabilitudinitatibus"
XI. On page 136 of the Shakespeare Folio of 1623, being a portion
of the play "Loves labour's lost," and its connection with
Gustavi Seleni "Cryptomenytices"
XII. The "Householder of Stratford"
XIII. Conclusion, with further evidences from Title Pages
Addenda et Corrigenda
Introduction to Bacon's "Promus"
Reprint of Bacon's "Promus"
LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS
I. _Frontispiece_. Portrait of Francis Bacon, from his "Sylva
II. Portrait of Francis Bacon, by Van Somer.
Engraved by W.C. Edwards.
III. The original "Shakespeare" Monument in Stratford Parish Church,
a facsimile from Dugdale's "History of Warwickshire,"
published in 1656.
IV. The Shakespeare Monument as it appears at the present time.
V. The original Bust, enlarged from Plate III.
VI. The present Bust, enlarged from Plate IV.
VII. Reduced facsimile of the title page of the first folio edition
of "Mr. William Shakespeare's" plays, published in 1623.
VIII. Facsimile, full size, of the original portrait
[so-called] of "Shakespeare" from the 1623 Folio.
IX. Verses ascribed to Ben Jonson, facing the title page which is
shewn in Plate VII.
X. The back of the left arm, which does duty for the right arm
of the figure, shewn on Plates VII. and VIII.
XI. The front of the left arm of the figure, shewn on Plates VII.
XII. The [mask] head from the [so-called] portrait by Droeshout
in the 1623 Folio.
XIII. Portrait of Sir Nicholas Bacon. By Zucchero.
XIV. The five [so-called] "Shakespeare" Signatures.
[The sixth is shewn in Plate XXXVIII., Page 164].
XV. Francis Bacon's Crest, from the binding of a presentation copy
of his "Novum Organum," published in 1620.
XVI. Facsimile of the title page of "The Great Assises holden
XVII.-XVIII. Facsimiles of pages iii. and iv. of the same.
XIX. The original "Shakespeare" Monument in Stratford Parish Church,
a facsimile from Rowe's "Life and Works of Shakespeare,"
Vol. I, 1709.
XX. Reduced facsimile of page 136 of the first folio edition of
the plays, 1623.
XXI. Full size facsimile of a portion of the same page 136 of the
first folio edition of the plays, 1623.
XXII. Full size facsimile of page F4 of "Loves labor's lost," first
quarto edition, published in 1598.
XXIII. Facsimile of a portion of a contemporary copy of a letter by
Francis Bacon, dated 1595.
XXIV. Facsimiles from page 255 of Gustavi Seleni "Cryptomenytices
et Cryptographiae," published in 1624.
XXV. Facsimile from page 2O2b of "Traicte des chiffres ou secretes
manieres d'escrire," par Blaise de Vigenere, published in 1585.
XXVI. Ornamental Heading, from William Camden's "Remains,"
published in 1616.
XXVII. Reduced facsimile of the title page of Gustavi Seleni
"Cryptomenytices et Cryptographiae," published in 1624.
XXVIII.-XXXI Various portions of Plate XXVII. enlarged.
XXXII. Scene from "The Merry Wives of Windsor," from a painting
by Thomas Stothard.
XXXIII. Facsimile of the title page of Bacon's "De Augmentis
Scientiarum," published in 1645.
XXXIV. Facsimile of the title page of "New Atlantis, begun by Lord
Verulam and continued by R.H., Esquire," published in 1660.
XXXV. Facsimile of the title page of Bacon's "Historia Regni Henrici
Septem," published in 1642.
XXXVI. Nemesis, from Alciati's "Emblems," published in 1531.
XXXVII. Nemesis, from Baudoin's "Emblems," published in 1638.
XXXVIII.-IX. Portion of the MSS. mentioning Shakespeare, discovered
by Dr. Wallace.
XL. Facsimiles of three examples of law clerks' writing of the name
XLI. Facsimile of the Dedication of "The Attourney's Academy." 1630.
XLII. Facsimile of portion of Folio 85 of the original MS. of Bacon's
XLIII. Portrait of Francis Bacon, from painting by Van Somer, formerly
in the collection of the Duke of Fife.
The Ornamental Headings of the various Chapters are mostly variations of
the "Double A" ornament found in certain Shakespeare Quarto Plays, and
in various other books published circa 1590-1650.
A few references will be found below:--
_Title Page_, and _To the Reader_.
Shakespeare's Works. 1623.
_Contents_. Page ix.
North's "Lives." 1595.
Spenser's "Faerie Queene." 1609, 1611.
Works of King James. 1616.
Purchas' "Pilgrimages." 1617.
Bacon's "Novum Organum." 1620.
Seneca's Works. 1620.
Speed's "Great Britaine." 1623.
Bacon's "Operum Moralium." 1638.
Page 1. Heading of CHAPTER I.
"Contention of Yorke and Lancaster," Part I. 1594.
"Romeo and Juliet." 1599.
"Henry V." 1598, 1600.
"Sir John Falstaffe." 1602.
"Richard III." 1602.
"Regimen Sanitatis Salerni." 1597.
Page 6. Heading of CHAPTER II.
Hardy's "Le Theatre," vol. 4. 1626.
Barclay's "Argenis." 2 vols. 1625-26.
Aleman's "Le Gueux." 1632.
Page 35. Heading of CHAPTER III.
Mayer's "Praxis Theologica." 1629.
Ben Jonson's Works, Vol. 2. 1640.
Page 40. Heading of CHAPTER IV.
"The Shepheard's Calendar." 1617.
"The Rogue." 1622.
Barclay's "Argenis." 1636.
Bacon's "Remaines." 1648.
"The Mirrour of State." 1656.
Page 47. Heading to CHAPTER V.
Preston's "Breast-plate of Faith." 1630.
Page 51. Heading to CHAPTER VI.
"Venus and Adonis." 1593.
"Unnatural conspiracie of Scottish Papists." 1593.
"Nosce te ipsum." 1602.
The ornament reversed is found in:
Spenser's "Faerie Queene." 1596.
"Historie of Tamerlane." 1597.
Barckley's "Felicitie of Man." 1598.
Page 55. Heading to CHAPTER VII.
James I. "Essayes of a Prentise in the Art of Poesie."
De Loque's "Single Combat." 1591.
"Taming of a Shrew." 1594
Hartwell's "Warres." 1595.
Heywood's Works. 1598.
Hayward's "Of the Union." 1604.
Page 55 _(continued)_.
Cervantes' "Don Quixote." 1612.
Peacham's "Compleat Gentleman." 1622.
Page 69. Heading of CHAPTER VIII.
"Richard II." 1597.
"Richard III." 1597.
"Henrie IV." 1600.
Shakespeare's "Sonnets." 1609.
Matheieu's "Henry IV." [of France.] 1612.
Page 74. Heading of CHAPTER IX.
Hardy's "Le Theatre." 1624.
Page 84. Heading of CHAPTER X.
Boys' "Exposition of the last Psalme." 1615.
Page 103. Heading of CHAPTER XI.
Bacon's "Henry VII." 1629.
Bacon's "New Atlantis." 1631.
Page 113. Printed upside down.
Camden's "Remains." 1616.
Page 134. Heading of CHAPTER XII.
Preston's "Life Eternall." 1634.
Page 144. Heading of CHAPTER XIII.
Barclay's "Argenis." 1636.
Page 161. Heading of CHAPTER XIV.
Martyn's "Lives of the Kings." 1615.
Seneca's Works. 1620.
Slatyer's "Great Britaine." 1621.
Bacon's "Resuscitatio," Part II. 1671.
Page 177. Heading of CHAPTER XV.
Gustavi Seleni "Cryptomenytices." 1624.
Page 187. Introduction to "Promus."
"King John." 1591.
Florio's "Second Frutes." 1591.
De Loque's "Single Combat." 1591
Montaigne's "Essais." 1602.
Cervantes' "Don Quixote," translated by Shelton. 1612-20.
Page 287. Tail Piece from Spenser's "Faerie Queen." 1617.
[Illustration: Plate II Portrait of Francis Bacon,
By Van Somer.
Engraved by W.C. Edwards]
BACON IS SHAKESPEARE.
"What does it matter whether the immortal works were written by
Shakespeare (of Stratford) or by another man who bore (or assumed) the
Some twenty years ago, when this question was first propounded, it was
deemed an excellent joke, and I find that there still are a great number
of persons who seem unable to perceive that the question is one of
When the Shakespeare revival came, some eighty or ninety years ago,
people said "pretty well for Shakespeare" and the "learned" men of that
period were rather ashamed that Shakespeare should be deemed to be
"_the_" English poet.
"Three poets in three distant ages born,
Greece, Italy and England did adorn,
. . . . . . . . . .
The force of Nature could no further go,
To make a third she joined the other two."
Dryden did not write these lines in reference to Shakespeare but to
Milton. Where will you find the person who to-day thinks Milton comes
within any measurable distance of the greatest genius among the sons of
earth who was called by the name of Shakespeare?
Ninety-two years ago, viz.: in June 1818, an article appeared in
_Blackwood's Edinburgh Magazine_, under the heading "Time's Magic
Lantern. No. V. Dialogue between Lord Bacon and Shakspeare" [Shakespeare
being spelled Shakspeare]. The dialogue speaks of "Lord" Bacon and
refers to him as being engaged in transcribing the "Novum Organum" when
Shakspeare enters with a letter from Her Majesty (meaning Queen
Elizabeth) asking him, Shakspeare, to see "her own" sonnets now in the
keeping of _her_ Lord Chancellor.
Of course this is all topsy turvydom, for in Queen Elizabeth's reign
Bacon was never "Lord" Bacon or Lord Chancellor.
But to continue, Shakspeare tells Bacon "Near to Castalia there bubbles
also a fountain of petrifying water, wherein the muses are wont to dip
whatever posies have met the approval of Apollo; so that the slender
foliage which originally sprung forth in the cherishing brain of a true
poet becomes hardened in all its leaves and glitters as if it were
carved out of rubies and emeralds. The elements have afterwards no
power over it."
_Bacon_. Such will be the fortune of your own
_Shakspeare_. Ah my Lord! Do not encourage me to
hope so. I am but a poor unlettered man,
who seizes whatever rude conceits his own
natural vein supplies him with, upon the
enforcement of haste and necessity; and
therefore I fear that such as are of deeper
studies than myself, will find many flaws in
my handiwork to laugh at both now and
_Bacon_. He that can make the multitude laugh and
weep as you do Mr. Shakspeare need not
fear scholars.... More scholarship
might have sharpened your judgment
but the particulars whereof a character is
composed are better assembled by force of
imagination than of judgment....
_Shakspeare_. My Lord thus far I know, that the first
glimpse and conception of a character in
my mind, is always engendered by chance
and accident. We shall suppose, for instance,
that I, sitting in a tap-room, or
standing in a tennis court. The behaviour
of some one fixes my attention.... Thus
comes forth Shallow, and Slender,
and Mercutio, and Sir Andrew Aguecheek.
_Bacon_. These are characters who may be found alive
in the streets. But how frame you such
interlocutors as Brutus and Coriolanus?
_Shakspeare_. By searching histories, in the first place,
my Lord, for the germ. The filling up
afterwards comes rather from feeling than
observation. I turn myself into a Brutus
or a Coriolanus for the time; and can, at
least in fancy, partake sufficiently of the
nobleness of their nature, to put proper
words in their mouths....
My knowledge of the tongues is but small,
on which account I have read ancient
authors mostly at secondhand. I remember,
when I first came to London, and
began to be a hanger-on at the theatres, a
great desire grew in me for more learning
than had fallen to my share at Stratford;
but fickleness and impatience, and the
bewilderment caused by new objects, dispersed
that wish into empty air....
This ridiculous and most absurd nonsense, which appeared in 1818 in
_Blackwood's Edinburgh Magazine_ was deemed so excellent and so
_instructive_ that (slightly abridged) it was copied into "Reading
lessons for the use of public and private schools" by John Pierpont, of
Boston, U.S.A., which was published in London nearly twenty years later,
viz., in 1837.
As I said before, the dialogue is really all topsy turvydom, for the
writer must have known perfectly well that Bacon was not Lord Keeper
till 1617, the year after Shakspeare's death in 1616, and was not made
Lord Chancellor till 1618, and that he is not supposed to have began to
write the "Novum Organum" before the death of Queen Elizabeth.
I have therefore arrived at the conclusion that the whole article was
really intended to poke fun at the generally received notion that the
author of the plays was an _un_lettered man, who picked up his knowledge
at tavern doors and in taprooms and tennis courts. I would specially
refer to the passage where Bacon asks "How frame you such interlocutors
as Brutus and Coriolanus?" and Shakspeare replies "By searching
histories, in the first place, my Lord, for the germ. The filling up
afterwards comes rather from feeling than observation. I turn myself
into a Brutus or a Coriolanus for the time and can at least in fancy
partake sufficiently of the nobleness of their nature to put proper
words in their mouths."
Surely this also must have been penned to open the eyes of the public to
the absurdity of the popular conception of the author of the plays as an
_un_lettered man who "had small Latin and less Greek"!
The highest scholarship not only in this country and in Germany but
throughout the world has been for many years concentrated upon the
classical characters portrayed in the plays, and the adverse criticism
of former days has given place to a reverential admiration for the
marvellous knowledge of antiquity displayed throughout the plays in the
presentation of the historical characters of bygone times; classical
authority being found for nearly every word put into their mouths.
What does it matter whether the immortal works were written by
Shakspeare (of Stratford) or by a great and learned man who assumed the
name Shakespeare to "Shake a lance at Ignorance"? We should not forget
that this phrase "Shake a lance at Ignorance" is contemporary, appearing
in Ben Jonson's panegyric in the Shakespeare folio of 1623.
The Shackspere Monument, Bust, and Portrait.
In the year 1909 Mr. George Hookham in the January number of the
_National Review_ sums up practically all that is really known of the
life of William Shakspeare of Stratford as follows:--
'We only know that he was born at Stratford, of illiterate parents--
(we do _not_ know that he went to school there)--that, when 18-1/2
years old, he married Anne Hathaway (who was eight years his senior,
and who bore him a child six months after marriage); that he had
in all three children by her (whom with their mother he left, and
went to London, having apparently done his best to desert her before
marriage);--that in London he became an actor with an interest in a
theatre, and was reputed to be the writer of plays;--that he
purchased property in Stratford, to which town he returned;--engaged
in purchases and sales and law-suits (of no biographical interest
except as indicating his money-making and litigious temperament);
helped his father in an application for coat armour (to be obtained
by false pretences); promoted the enclosure of common lands at
Stratford (after being guaranteed against personal loss); made his
will--and died at the age of 52, without a book in his possession,
and leaving nothing to his wife but his second best bed, and this
by an afterthought. No record of friendship with anyone more
cultured than his fellow actors.
No letter,--only two contemporary reports of his conversation, one
with regard to the commons enclosure as above, and the other in
circumstances not to be recited unnecessarily.
In a word we know his parentage, birth, marriage, fatherhood,
occupation, his wealth and his chief ambition, his will and his
death, and absolutely nothing else; his death being received with
unbroken and ominous silence by the literary world, not even Ben
Jonson who seven years later glorified the plays _in excelsis_,
expending so much as a quatrain on his memory.'
[Illustration: Plate III. The Stratford Monument,
From Dugdale's Warwickshire, 1656.]
[Illustration: Plate IV. The Stratford Monument as it appears
at the present time.]
To this statement by Mr. George Hookham I would add that we know W.
Shakspeare was christened 26th April 1564, that his Will which commences
"In the name of god Amen! I Willim Shackspeare, of Stratford upon Avon,
in the countie of warr gent in perfect health and memorie, god be
praysed," was dated 25th (January altered to) March 1616, and it was
proved 22nd June 1616, Shakspeare having died 23rd April 1616, four
weeks after the date of the Will.
We also know that a monument was erected to him in Stratford Church. And
because L. Digges, in his lines in the Shakespeare folio of 1623 says
"When Time dissolves thy Stratford Moniment," it is supposed that the
monument must have been put up before 1623. But we should remember that
as Mrs. Stopes (who is by no means a Baconian) pointed out in the
_Monthly Review_ of April 1904, the original monument was not like the
present monument which shews a man with a pen in his hand; but was the
very different monument which will be found depicted in Sir William
Dugdale's "Antiquities of Warwickshire," published in 1656. The bust
taken from this is shewn on Plate 5, Page 14, and the whole monument on
Plate 3, Page 8.
[Illustration: Plate V. The Stratford Bust, from Dugdale's Warwickshire.
The figure bears no resemblance to the usually accepted likeness of
Shakspeare. It hugs a sack of wool, or a pocket of hops to its belly and
does not hold a pen in its hand.
In Plate 6, Page 15, is shewn the bust from the monument as it exists
at the present time, with the great pen in the right hand and a
sheet of paper under the left hand. The whole monument is shewn on
Plate 4, Page 9.
[Illustration: Plate VI. The Stratford Bust as it appears at the
The face seems copied from the mask of the so-called portrait in the
1623 folio, which is shewn in Plate 8.
[Illustration: Plate VIII. Full size Facsimile of part of the Title Page
of the 1623 Shakespeare folio]
It is desirable to look at that picture very carefully, because every
student ought to know that the portrait in the title-page of the first
folio edition of the plays published in 1623, which was drawn by Martin
Droeshout, is cunningly composed of two left arms and a mask. Martin
Droeshout, its designer, was, as Mr. Sidney Lee tells us, but 15 years
of age when Shakspeare died. He is not likely therefore ever to have
seen the actor of Stratford, yet this is the "Authentic," that is the
"Authorised" portrait of Shakspeare, although there _is_ no
question--there _can be_ no possible question--that in fact it is a
cunningly drawn cryptographic picture, shewing two left arms and a mask.
The back of the left arm which does duty for the right arm is shewn in
Plate 10, Page 26.
[Illustration: Plate X. The Back of the Left Arm, from Plate VIII]
Every tailor will admit that this is not and cannot be the front of
the right arm, but is, without possibility of doubt, the back of
the left arm.
[Illustration: Plate XI. The Front of the Left Arm, from Plate VIII]
[Illustration: (not included in list of plates) The Front of Left Arm.
_From Plate VIII_. The Back of Left Arm _From Plate VIII._ Arranged
Tailor fashion, shoulder to shoulder, as in the _Gentleman's Tailor
Magazine_, April, 1911]
Plate 11 shews the front of the left arm, and you at once perceive
that you are no longer looking at the back of the coat but at the
front of the coat.
[Illustration: Plate XII. The [Mask] Head, from the [so-called]
Portrait, by Droeshout, in the 1623 Folio]
Now in Plate 12, Page 32, you see the mask, especially note that the ear
is a mask ear and stands out curiously; note also how distinct the line
shewing the edge of the mask appears. Perhaps the reader will perceive
this more clearly if he turns the page upside down.
[Illustration: Plate XIII. Sir Nicholas Bacon, from the Painting
Plate 13, Page 33, depicts a real face, that of Sir Nicholas Bacon,
eldest son of the Lord Keeper, from a contemporary portrait by Zucchero,
lately in the Duke of Fife's Collection. This shews by contrast the
difference between the portrait of a living man, and the drawing of a
lifeless mask with the double line from ear to chin. Again examine
Plates 8, Pages 20, 21, the complete portrait in the folio. The reader
having seen the separate portions, will, I trust, be able now to
perceive that this portrait is correctly characterised as cunningly
composed of two left arms and a mask.
While examining this portrait, the reader should study the lines that
describe it in the Shakespeare folio of 1623, a facsimile of which is
To the Reader.
This Figure, that thou here seest put,
It was for gentle Shakespeare cut;
Wherein the Grauer had a strife
with Nature, to out-doo the life:
O, could he but haue drawne his wit
As well in brasse, as he hath hit
His face; the Print would then surpasse
All, that was euer writ in brasse.
But, since he cannot, Reader, looke
Not on his Picture, but his Booke.
VERSES ASCRIBED TO BEN JONSON, FROM THE 1623 FOLIO EDITION
OF SHAKESPEARE'S WORKS.
B.I. call the ridiculous dummy a "portrait" but describes it as the
"Figure put for" (that is "instead of") and as "the Print," and as "his
Picture"; he likewise most clearly tells us to "looke not on his
(ridiculous) Picture, but (only) his Booke." It seems, therefore, evident
that he knew the secret of Bacon's authorship and intended to inform
those capable of understanding that the graver had done out the life
when he writes, "Out-doo the life." In the New English Dictionary, edited
by Sir J.A.H. Murray, there are upwards of six hundred words beginning
with "Out," and every one of them, with scarcely a single exception,
requires, in order to be fully understood, to be read reversed. Out-law
does not mean outside of the law, but lawed out by a legal process.
"Out-doo" was used only in the sense of "do out"; thus, in the "Cursor
Mundi," written centuries before the days of Elizabeth, we read that
Adam was out done [of Paradise]; and in Drayton's "Barons' Wars,"
published in 1603, we find in Book V. s. li.
"That he his foe not able to withstand,
Was ta'en in battle and his eyes out-done."
The graver has indeed done out the life so cleverly that for hundreds of
years learned pedants and others have thought that the figure
represented a real man, and altogether failed to perceive that it was a
mere stuffed dummy clothed in an impossible coat, cunningly composed of
the front of the left arm buttoned on to the back of the same left arm,
as to form a double left armed apology for a man. Moreover, this dummy
is surmounted by a hideous staring mask, furnished with an imaginary
ear, utterly unlike anything human, because, instead of being hollowed
in, it is rounded out something like the rounded outside of a shoe-horn,
in order to form a cup which would cover and conceal any real ear that
might be behind it.
Perhaps the reader will more fully understand the full meaning of B.I.'s
lines if I paraphrase them as follows:--
To the Reader.
The dummy that thou seest set here,
Was put instead of Shake-a-speare;
Wherein the Graver had a strife
To extinguish all of Nature's life;
O, could he but have drawn his mind
As well as he's concealed behind
His face; the Print would then surpasse
All, that was ever writ in brasse.
But since he cannot, do not looke
On his mas'd Picture, but his Booke.
Do out appears in the name of the little instrument something like a
pair of snuffer which was formerly used to extinguish the candles and
called a "Doute." Therefore I have correctly substituted "extinguished"
for "out-doo." At the beginning I have substituted "dummy" for "figure"
because we are told that the figure is "put for" (that is, put instead
of) Shakespeare. In modern English we frequently describe a chairman who
is a mere dummy as a figurehead. Then "wit" in these lines means
absolutely the same as "mind," which I have used in its place because I
think it refers to the fact that upon the miniature of Bacon in his 18th
year, which was painted by Hilliard in 1578, we read:--"Si tabula
daretur digna animum mallem." This line is believed to have been written
at the time by the artist, and was translated in "Spedding":--"If one
could but paint his mind."
In March, 1911, the _Tailor and Cutter_ newspaper stated that the
Figure, put for Shakepeare in the 1623 folio, was undoubtedly clothed in
an impossible coat, composed of the back and the front of the same left
arm. And in the following April the _Gentleman's Tailor Magazine_,
under the heading of a "Problem for the Trade," shews the two halves of
the coat as printed on page 28a, and says: "It is passing strange that
something like three centuries should have been allowed to elapse
before the tailors' handiwork should have been appealed to in this
"The special point is that in what is known as the authentic portrait of
William Shakespeare, which appears in the celebrated first folio
edition, published in 1623, a remarkable sartorial puzzle is apparent."
"The tunic, coat, or whatever the garment may have been called at the
time, is so strangely illustrated that the right-hand side of the
forepart is obviously the left-hand side of the backpart; and so gives a
harlequin appearance to the figure, which it is not unnatural to assume
was intentional, and done with express object and purpose."
"Anyhow, it is pretty safe to say that if a Referendum of the trade was
taken on the question whether the two illustrations shown above
represent the foreparts of the same garments, the polling would give an
unanimous vote in the negative."
"It is outside the province of a trade journal to dogmatise on such a
subject; but when such a glaring incongruity as these illustrations show
is brought into court, it is only natural that the tailor should have
something to say; or, at any rate, to think about."
This one simple fact which can neither be disputed nor explained away,
viz., that the "Figure" put upon the title-page of the First Folio of
the Plays in 1623 to represent Shakespeare, is a doubly left-armed and
stuffed dummy, surmounted by a ridiculous putty-faced mask, disposes once
and for all of any idea that the mighty Plays were written by the
illiterate clown of Stratford-upon-Avon.
"He hath _hit_ his face"
It is thought that _hit_ means _hid_ as in Chaucer's Squiere's Tale,
line 512 etc.
"Right as a serpent _hit_ him under floures
Til he may seen his tyme for to byte"
If indeed "hit" be intended to be read as "hid" then these ten lines are
no longer the cryptic puzzle which they have hitherto been considered to
be, but in conjunction with the portrait, they clearly reveal the true
facts, that the real author is writing left-handedly, that means
secretly, in shadow, with his face hidden behind a mask or pseudonym.
We should also notice "out-doo" is spelled with a hyphen. In the
language of to-day and still more in that of the time of Shakespeare
all, or nearly all, words beginning with _out_ may be read reversed,
out-bar is bar out, out-bud is bud out, out-crop is crop out, out-fit is
fit out, and so on through the alphabet.
If therefore we may read "out-doo the life" as "doo out the life"
meaning "shut out the real face of the living man" we perceive that here
also we are told "that the real face is hidden."
The description, with the head line "To the Reader" and the signature
"B.I.," forms twelve lines, the words of which can be turned into
numerous significant anagrams, etc., to which, however, no allusion is
made in the present work. But our readers will find that if all the
letters are counted (the two v.v.'s in line nine being counted as four
letters) they will amount to the number 287. In subsequent chapters a
good deal is said about this number, but here we only desire to say that
we are "informed" that the "Great Author" intended to reveal himself 287
years after 1623, the date when the First Folio was published, that is
in the present year, 1910, when very numerous tongues will be loosened.
Examine once more the original Stratford Bust, Plate 5, Page 14, and the
present Stratford Bust, Plate 6, Page 15, _with the large pen in the
If the Stratford actor were indeed the author of the plays it was most
appropriate that he should have a pen in his hand. But in the original
monument as shewn in Plate 3, Page 8, the figure hugs a sack of wool or
a pocket of hops or may be a cushion. For about 120 years, this
continued to be the Stratford effigy and shewed nothing that could in
any way connect the man portrayed, with literary work. I believe that
this was not accidental. I think that everybody in Stratford must have
known that William "Sha_c_kspeare" could not write so much as his own
name, for I assert that we possess nothing which can by any reasonable
possibility be deemed to be his signature.
[Illustration: Decorative Chapter Heading]
The so-called "Signatures."
In Plate 14, Page 36, are shewn the five so-called signatures. These
five being the only pieces of writing in the world that can, even by the
most ardent Stratfordians, be supposed to have been written by
Shakspeare's pen; let us consider them carefully. The Will commences "In
the name of God Amen I Willum Shackspeare." It is written upon three
sheets of paper and each sheet bears a supposed signature. The Will is
dated in Latin "Vicesimo quinto die [Januarij] Mtij Anno Regni Dni nri
Jacobi, nunc R Anglie, &c. decimo quarto & Scotie xlix° annoq Dni 1616",
or shortly in English 25th March 1616.
Shakspeare died 23rd April 1616 just four weeks after publishing his
I say after "PUBLISHING his Will" advisedly, for such is the
attestation, viz., "Witnes to the publyshing hereof,"
Nothing is said about the witnessing of the signing hereof. The Will
might therefore have been, and I myself am perfectly certain that it
was, marked with the name of William Shakspeare by the Solicitor, Fra
(ncis) Collyns, who wrote the body of the Will.
[Illustration: Plate XIV. The Five so-called "Shakespeare Signatures."
THE FIVE SO-CALLED "SHAKESPEARE SIGNATURES."]
He also wrote the names of the other witnesses, which are all in the
same hand-writing as the Will; shewing that Shakspeare's witnesses were
also unable to write their names.
This fact, that Shakspeare's name is written by the solicitor, is
conclusively proved by the recent article of Magdalene Thumm-Kintzel in
the Leipzig magazine, _Der Menschenkenner_, which was published in
In this publication, photo reproductions of certain letters in the body
of the Will, and in the so-called Shakspeare signatures are placed side
by side, and the evidence is irresistible that they are written by the
same hand. Moreover when we remember that the Will commences "I Willim
Sha_c_kspeare" with a "c" between the "a" and "k," the idea that
Shakspeare himself wrote his own Will cannot be deemed worthy of serious
consideration. The whole Will is in fact in the handwriting of Francis
Collyns, the Warwick solicitor, who added the attestation clause.
I myself was sure that the solicitor had added the so-called signatures,
when, many years ago, I examined under the strongest magnifying glasses
the Will at Somerset House.
Look first at the upper writings and never again call them "signatures."
The top one is on the first page of the Will, the second on the second
page, the third on the last page of the Will.
The original of the top one has been very much damaged but the "W"
remains quite clear. Look first only at the "W's". If the writings were
signatures what could induce a man when signing his last Will to make
each "W" as different from the others as possible, and why is the second
Christian name written Willm?
Compare also the second and third "Shakspeare" and note that every
letter is formed in a different manner. Compare the two "S's", next
compare the two "h's", the "h" of the second begins at the bottom, the
"h" of the third begins at the top, the same applies to the next
letter the "a", so also with respect to the "k's "; how widely
different these are.
Plate 14 shews at the bottom two other names also. These are taken, the
one on the left from a deed of purchase of a dwelling house in
Blackfriars dated March 10th 1612-13 (now in the City Library of the
Corporation of London); the other on the right is from a mortgage of the
same property executed on the following day, viz: March 11th 1612-13,
which is now in the British Museum.
Neither of these documents states that it was "signed" but only says
that it was "sealed," and it was at that date in no way necessary that
any signatures should be written over the seals, but the clerks might
and evidently did, place upon these deeds an abbreviated name of William
Shakspeare over the seal on each document. In the case of the other two
parties to the documents, the signatures are most beautifully written
and are almost absolutely identical in the two deeds.
Look at these two supposititious signatures. To myself it is difficult
to imagine that anyone with eyes to see could suppose them to be
signatures by the same hand.
[Illustration: The Signatures (so called) of "Shakespeare," which are the
best possible reproductions of the originals, and shew that all are
written in "lawscript" by skilled penman.]
Note on the so-called "Signatures."
When part of the purchase money is what is commonly called "left on
mortgage," the mortgage deed is always dated one day _after_, but is
always signed one moment _before_, the purchase deed, because the owner
will not part with his property before he receives his security.
The Shakespeare purchase deed and the mortgage deed were therefore
both signed at the same time, in the same place, with the same pen,
and the same ink.
This is evidently true with respect to the signatures of Wm. Johnson
and Jno. Jackson, the other parries to both of the deeds.
But as I wrote to the City authorities and the British Museum
authorities, it would be impossible to discover a scoundrel who would
venture to perjure himself and falsely swear that it was even remotely
possible that the two supposed signature of Wm. Shakespeare could have
been written at the same time, in the same place, with the same pen, and
the same ink, by the _same hand_.
They are widely different, one having been written by the law clerk of
the seller, the other by the law clerk of the purchaser.
According to the law of England, anyone may (by request) attach any
person's name to any document, and if that person touch it, any third
person may witness it as a signature.
Some years ago by the courtesy of the Corporation of London, the
Librarian and the Chairman of the Library Committee carried the Purchase
Deed to the British Museum to place it side by side with the Mortgage
After they had with myself and the Museum Authorities most carefully
examined the two deeds, the Librarian of the City Corporation said to
me, there is no reason to suppose that the Corporation deed has upon it
the signature of Wm. Shakespeare, and the British Museum Authorities
likewise told me that they did not think that the Museum Mortgage Deed
had upon it a signature of William Shakespeare.
The more you examine the whole five the more you will be certain, as the
writer is, after the most careful study of the Will and of the Deeds,
that not one of the five writings is a "signature," or pretends to be a
"signature," and that therefore there is a probability, practically
amounting to a certainty, that the Stratford Actor could not so much as
manage to scrawl his own name.
No! We possess not a scrap of writing, not even an attempt at a
signature, [see also Chapter XIV., p. 161] that can be reasonably
supposed to be written by the Stratford _gentleman_.
He is styled "gentle Shakespeare": this does not refer to anything
relating to his character or to his manners but it means that possessing
a coat of arms he was legally entitled to call himself a "gentleman."
Contemporary Allusions to Shackspere.
Shakspeare the Actor purchased New Place at Stratford-on-Avon in 1597
for £60 and he became a "gentleman" and an esquire when he secured a
grant of arms in 1599.
How did the stage "honour" the player who had bought a coat of arms and
was able to call himself a "gentleman"?
Three contemporary plays give us scenes illustrating the incident:
1st. Ben Jonson's "Every man out of his humour" which was acted in 1599
the very year of Shakspeare's grant of arms.
2nd. Shakespeare's "As you like it" which was entered at
Stationers' Hall in 1600, although no copy is known to exist before
the folio of 1623.
3rd. "The Return from Parnassus" which was acted at St. John's College,
Cambridge in 1601, though not printed till 1606.
In addition to these three plays, there is a fourth evidence of the way
in which the Clown who had purchased a coat of arms was regarded, in a
pamphlet or tract of which only one copy is known to exist. This tract
which can be seen in the Rylands Library, Manchester, used to be in Lord
Spencer's library at Althorp, and is reprinted by Halliwell-Phillipps in
"Outlines of the Life of Shakespeare," 1889, Vol. I, pages 325-6.
[Illustration: PLATE XV. Bacon's Crest from the Binding of a
Presentation Copy of the Novum Organum, 1620.]
To commence with Ben Jonson's "Every man out of his humour." The clown
who had purchased a coat of arms is said to be the brother of Sordido (a
miser), and is described as an "essential" clown (that is an uneducated
rustic), and is styled Sogliardo which is the Italian for the filthiest
The other two characters in the scene (act iii. sc. I) are Puntarvolo
who, as his crest is a _Boar_, must be intended to represent Bacon;
and Carlo Buffone who is a buffoon or jester.
Enter Sogliardo (the filth), who is evidently the Stratford Clown, who
has just purchased a coat of arms:--
Actus Tertius, Scena Prima,
Sogliardo, Punt., Carlo.
_Sog_. Nay I will haue him, I am resolute for that,
by this Parchment Gentlemen, I haue ben
so toil'd among the Harrots [meaning
_Heralds_] yonder, you will not beleeue, they
doe speake i' the straungest language, and
giue a man the hardest termes for his money,
that euer you knew.
_Car_. But ha' you armes? ha' your armes?
_Sog_. Yfaith, I thanke God I can write myselfe
Gentleman now, here's my Pattent, it cost
me thirtie pound by this breath.
_Punt_. A very faire Coat, well charg'd and full of
_Sog_. Nay, it has, as much varietie of colours in it,
as you haue seene a Coat haue, how like you
the Crest, Sir?
_Punt_. I vnderstand it not well, what is't?
_Sog_. Marry Sir, it is your Bore without a head
_Punt_. A Bore without a head, that's very rare.
_Car_. I, [Aye] and Rampant too: troth I commend
the Herald's wit, he has deciphered him well:
A Swine without a head, without braine, wit,
anything indeed, Ramping to Gentilitie. You
can blazon the rest signior? can you not?
. . . . . .
. . . . . .
_Punt_. Let the word be, _Not without mustard_, your
Crest is very rare sir.
Shakspeare's "word" that is his "motto" was--non sanz droict--not
without right--and I desire the reader also especially to remember
Sogliardo's words "Yfaith I thanke God" a phrase which though it appears
in the quartos is changed in the 1616 Ben Jonson folio into "I thank
_them_" which has no meaning.
Next we turn to Shakespeare's "As you like it." This play though entered
at Stationers' Hall in 1600 and probably played quite as early is not
known in print till it appeared in the folio of 1623. The portion to
which I wish to refer is the commencement of Actus Quintus, Scena Prima.
Act 5, Scene i.
Enter Clowne and Awdrie.
_Clow_. We shall finde a time _Awdrie_, patience gentle
_Awd_. Faith the priest was good enough, for all the
olde gentlemans saying.
_Clow_. A most wicked Sir _Oliver, Awdrie_, a most vile
_Mar-text._ But _Awdrie_, there is a youth heere
in the forrest layes claime to you.
_Awd_. I, I know who 'tis: he hath no interest in mee
in the world: here comes the man you meane.
_Clo_. It is meat and drinke to me to see a clowne,
by my troth, we that haue good wits, haue
much to answer for: we shall be flouting: we
_Will_. Good eu'n _Audrey._
_Awd_. God ye good eu'n _William_.
_Will_. And good eu'n to you sir.
_Clo_. Good eu'n gentle friend. Couer thy head,
couer thy head: Nay prethee bee couer'd.
How olde are you Friend?
_Will_. Fiue and twentie Sir.
_Clo_. A ripe age: Is thy name _William_?
_Will_. _William_, Sir.
_Clo_. A faire name. Was't borne i' the Forrest
_Will_. I [Aye] Sir, I thanke God.
_Clo_. Thanke God: A good answer: Art rich?
_Will_. 'Faith Sir, so, so.
_Clo_. So, so, is good, very good, very excellent
good: and yet it is not, it is but so, so: Art
_Will_. I [Aye] sir, I haue a prettie wit.
_Clo_. Why, thou saist well. I do now remember
a saying: The Foole doth thinke he is wise,
but the wise man knowes himselfe to be a
Foole.... You do loue this maid?
_Will_. I do Sir.
_Clo_. Giue me your hand: art thou Learned?
_Will_. No Sir.
_Clo_. Then learne this of me, To haue is to haue.
For it is a figure in Rhetoricke, that drink
being powr'd out of a cup into a glasse, by
filling the one, doth empty the other. For all
your Writers do consent, that _ipse_ is hee:
now you are not _ipse_, for I am he.
_Will_. Which he Sir?
_Clo_. He Sir, that must marrie this woman.
Firstly I want to call your attention to Touchstone the courtier who is
playing clown and who we are told "uses his folly like a stalking horse
and under the presentation of that he shoots his wit." Notice that
Touchstone refuses to be married to Awdrey (who probably represents the
plays of Shakespeare) by a-Mar-text_, and she declares that the Clown
William "has no interest in mee in the world." William--shall we say
Shakspeare of Stratford?--enters and is greeted as "gentle" (_i. e_. he
is possessed of a coat of arms). He says "Thank God" he was born in the
forest here (Ardennes, very near in sound to Arden). "Thank God" is
repeated by Touchstone and as it is the same phrase that is used by
Sogliardo in Ben Jonson's play I expect that it was an ejaculation very
characteristic of the real man of Stratford and I am confirmed in this
belief because in the folio edition of Ben Jonson's plays the phrase is
changed to "I thank _them_" which has no meaning.
The clown of Ardennes is rich but only rich for a clown (Shakspeare of
Stratford was not really rich, New Place cost only £60).
Asked if he is wise, he says "aye," that is "yes," and adds that he has
"a pretty wit," a phrase we must remember that is constantly used in
reference to the Stratford actor. Touchstone mocks him with a paraphrase
of the well-known maxim "If you are wise you are a Foole if you be a
Foole you are wise" which is to be found in Bacon's "Advancement of
Learning" Antitheta xxxi. Then he asks him "_Art thou learned_" and
William replies "_No sir_." This means, _unquestionably_, as every
lawyer must know, that William replies that he cannot _read_ one line of
print. I feel sure the man called Shackspeare of Stratford was an
uneducated rustic, never able to read a single line of print, and that
this is the reason why no books were found in his house, this is the
reason why his solicitor, Thomas Greene, lived with him in his house at
New Place (Halliwell-Phillipps: Outlines, 1889, Vol. i, p. 226);--a
well-known fact that very much puzzles those who do not realize the
depth of Shakspeare's illiteracy.
"The Return from Parnassus" and "Ratsei's Ghost."
The next play to which attention must be called is "The Return from
Parnassus" which was produced at Cambridge in 1601 and was printed in
1606 with the following title page:--
The Returne from Parnassus
The Scourge of Simony.
Publiquely acted by the Students
in Saint Johns Colledge in
Printed by G. Eld for John Wright, and
are to bee sold at his shop at
The portion to which I wish to direct attention is:--
Actus 5, Scena i.
_Studioso_. Fayre fell good _Orpheus_, that would rather be
King of a mole hill, then a Keysars slaue:
Better it is mongst fidlers to be chiefe,
Then at plaiers trencher beg reliefe.
But ist not strange this mimick apes should prize
Vnhappy Schollers at a hireling rate.
Vile world, that lifts them vp to hye degree,
And treades vs downe in groueling misery.
_England_ affordes those glorious vagabonds,
That carried earst their fardels on their backes,
Coursers to ride on through the gazing streetes
Sooping it in their glaring Satten sutes,
And Pages to attend their maisterships:
With mouthing words that better wits haue framed,
They purchase lands, and now Esquiers are made.
_Philomusus_. What ere they seeme being euen at the best
They are but sporting fortunes _scornfull_ iests.
Can these last two lines refer to Shakspeare the actor seeming to be the
poet? Note that they are spoken by Philomusus that is friend of the
poetic muse. Mark also the words "this mimick apes." Notice especially
"with mouthing words that _better_ wits haue framed, they purchase lands
and now Esquiers are made" i.e. get grants of arms. Who at this period
among mimics excepting W. Shakspeare of Stratford purchased lands and
obtained also a grant of arms?
That this sneer "mouthing words that better wits have framed" must have
been aimed at Shakspeare is strongly confirmed by the tract (reprinted
by Halliwell-Phillipps in his "Outlines of Shakespeare," 1889, Vol. I,
p. 325) which is called "Ratsei's Ghost or the second part of his mad
prankes and Robberies."
This pamphlet bears no date, but was entered at Stationers' Hall May
31st 1605. There is only a single copy in existence, which used to be in
Earl Spencer's library at Althorp but is now in the Rylands; Library at
Manchester. As I said, it is reprinted by Halliwell-Phillipps, and
Stratfordians are obliged to agree with him that the reference is
unquestionably to "Wm Shakespeare of Stratford." The most important part
which is spoken by Ratsei the robber to a country player is as
_Ratsei_. And for you sirra, saies hee to the chiefest
of them, thou hast a good presence upon a
stage; methinks thou darkenst thy merite
by playing in the country. Get thee to
London, for if one man were dead, they will
have much neede of such a one as thou art.
There would be none in my opinion fitter
then thyselfe to play his parts. My conceipt
is such of thee, that I durst venture all the
mony in my purse on thy head to play
Hamlet with him for a wager. There thou
shalt learn to be frugall,--for players were
never so thriftie as they are now about
London--and to feed upon all men, to let
none feede upon thee; to make thy hand a
stranger to thy pocket, thy hart slow to
performe thy tongues promise, and when
thou feelest thy purse well lined, buy thee
some place of lordship in the country, that,
growing weary of playing, thy mony may
there bring thee to dignitie and reputation;
then thou needest care for no man, nor not
for them that before made thee prowd
with speaking their words upon the stage.
The whole account of buying a place in the country, of feeding upon all
men (that is lending money upon usury) of never keeping promises, of
never giving anything in charity, agrees but too well with the few
records we possess of the man of Stratford. And therefore Stratfordians
are obliged to accept Halliwell-Phillipps' dictum that this tract called
Ratsei's Ghost refers to the actor of Stratford and that "_he_ needed
not to care for them that before made _him_ proud with speaking _their_
words upon the stage." How is it possible that Stratfordians can
continue to refuse to admit that the statement in the "Return from
Pernassus" "with mouthing words that better wits haue framed they
purchase lands and now Esquiers are made" must also refer to the
There is only a single letter extant addressed to Shakspeare, and this
asks for a loan of £30 It is dated 25th October 1598, and is from
Richard Quiney. It reads
"Loveinge Countreyman I am bolde of vow as of a ffrende,
craveinge yowr helpe wth xxxll vppon mr Bushells & my
securytee or mr Myttons wth me. mr Rosswell is nott come
to London as yeate & I have especiall cawse. yow shall
ffrende me muche in helpeinge me out of all the debttes I
owe in London I thancke god & muche quiet my mynde wch
wolde nott be indebeted I am nowe towardes the Cowrte in
hope of answer for the dispatche of my Buysenes. yow shall
nether loase creddytt nor monney by me the Lorde wyllinge
and nowe butt perswade yowr selfe soe as I hope & yow shall
nott need to feare butt wth all hartie thanckefullenes I wyll
holde my tyme & content yowr ffrende & yf we Bargaine
farther yow shalbe the paie mr yowr selfe. my tyme biddes me
hasten to an ende & soe I committ thys [to] yowr care & hope
of yowr helpe. I feare I shall nott be backe thys night ffrom
the Cowrte. haste, the Lorde be wth yow & with us all
ffrom the Bell in Carter Lane the 25 October 1598.
yowrs in all kyndenes
LS To my Loveinge good ffrend
& contreymann mr wm
Shackespere d[e]l[ive]r thees."
This letter is the only letter known to exist which was ever addressed
to William Shackspere, the illiterate householder of Stratford, who as
has been pointed out in these pages was totally unable to read a line of
print, or to write even his own name. There are however in existence
three, and three only, contemporary letters referring in any way to him,
and these are not about literature with which the Stratford man had
nothing whatever to do--but about mean and sordid small business
One is from Master Abraham Sturley, who writes in 1598 to a friend in
London in reference to Shakspeare lending "Some monei on some od yarde
land or other att Shottri or neare about us."
Another is dated Nov. 4th 1598, and is from the same Abraham Sturley to
Richard Quiney in which we are told that "our countriman Mr Wm Shak
would procure us monei wc I will like of."
A third from Adrian Quiney written (about 1598-1599) to his son Rycharde
Quiney in which he says "yff yow bargen with Wm Sha or receve money
therfor, brynge youre money homme."
There exists no contemporary letter from anyone to anyone, referring to
the Stratford actor as being a poet or as being in any way connected
with literature. But from the Court Records we learn that;
In 1600 Shakespeare brought action against John Clayton in London for £7
and got judgment in his favour. He also sued Philip Rogers of Stratford
for two shillings loaned.
In 1604 he sued Philip Rogers for several bushels of malt sold to
him at various times between March 27th and the end of May of that
year, amounting in all to the value of £1. 15s. 10d. The poet a
dealer in malt?
In 1608 he prosecuted John Addenbroke to recover a debt of £6 and sued
his surety Horneby.
Halliwell-Phillipps tells us that "The precepts as appears from
memoranda in the originals, were issued by the poet's solicitor Thomas
Greene who was then residing under some unknown conditions at
Referring to these sordid stories, Richard Grant White, that strong
believer in the Stratford man, says in his "Life and genius of William
Shakespeare," p. 156 "The pursuit of an impoverished man for the sake of
imprisoning him and depriving him both of the power of paying his debts
and supporting himself and his family, is an incident in Shakespeare's
life which it requires the utmost allowance and consideration for the
practice of the time and country to enable us to contemplate with
equanimity--satisfaction is impossible."
"The biographer of Shakespeare must record these facts because the
literary antiquaries have unearthed and brought them forward as new
particulars of the life of Shakespeare. We hunger and receive these
husks; we open our mouths for food and we break our teeth against
Yes! The world has broken its teeth too long upon these stones to
continue to mistake them for bread. And as the accomplished scholar and
poetess the late Miss Anna Swanwick once declared to the writer, she
knew nothing of the Bacon and Shakespeare controversy, but Mr. Sidney
Lee's "Life of Shakespeare" had convinced her that his man never wrote
the plays. And that is just what everybody else is saying at Eton, at
Oxford, at Cambridge, in the Navy, in the Army, and pretty generally
among unprejudiced people everywhere, who are satisfied, as is Mark
Twain, that the most learned of works could not have been written by the
most _un_learned of men.
Yes! It does matter that the "Greatest Birth of Time" should no longer
be considered to have been the work of the unlettered rustic of
Stratford; and the hour has at last come when it should be universally
known that this mighty work was written by the man who had taken all
knowledge for his province, the man who said "I have, though in a
despised weed [that is under a Pseudonym] procured the good of all men";
the man who left his "name and memory to men's charitable speeches, and
to foreign nations, and the next ages."
Bacon acknowledged to be a Poet.
In discussing the question of the Authorship of the plays many people
appear to be unaware that Bacon was considered by his contemporaries to
be a great poet. It seems therefore advisable to quote a few witnesses
who speak of his pre-eminence in poetry.
In 1645 there was published "The Great Assises holden in Parnassus by
Apollo and his assessours" a facsimile of the title of which is given on
page 57. This work is anonymous but is usually ascribed to George
Withers and in it Bacon as Lord Verulan is placed first and designated
"Chancellor of Parnassus" that is "Greatest of Poets."
After the title, the book commences with two pages of which facsimiles
are given on pages 58, 59.
[Illustration: Plate XVI. Facsimile Title Page]
[Illustration: Plate XVII. Facsimile of Page III of "The Great Assises"]
[Illustration: Plate XVIII Facsimile of Page IV of "The Great Assises"]
Apollo appears at the top, next comes Lord Verulan as Chancellor of
Parnassus, Sir Philip Sidney and other world renowned names follow and
then below the line side by side is a list of the jurors and a list of
A little examination will teach us that the jurors are really the same
persons as the malefactors and that we ought to read right across the
page as if the dividing line did not exist.
Acting on this principle we perceive that George Wither [Withers] is
correctly described as Mercurius Britanicus. Mr. Sidney Lee tells us
that Withers regarded "Britain's Remembrancer" 1628 and "Prosopopaeia
Britannica" 1648 as his greatest works.
Thomas Cary [Carew] is correctly described as Mercurias Aulicus--Court
Messenger. He went to the French Court with Lord Herbert and was made
Gentleman of the Privy Chamber by Charles I who presented him with an
estate at Sunninghill.
Thomas May is correctly described as Mercurius Civicus. He applied for
the post of Chronologer to the City of London and James I wrote to the
Lord Mayor (unsuccessfully) in his favour.
Josuah Sylvester is correctly described as The Writer of Diurnals. He
translated Du Bartas "Divine Weekes," describing day by day, that is
"Diurnally," the creation of the world.
Georges Sandes [Sandys] is The Intelligencer. He travelled all over
the world and his book of travels was one of the popular works of
Michael Drayton is The Writer of Occurrences. Besides the "Poly-Olbion,"
he wrote "England's Heroicall Epistles" and "The Barron's Wars."
Francis Beaumont is The Writer of Passages. This exactly describes him
as he is known as writing in conjunction with Fletcher. "Beamount and
Fletcher make one poet, they single dare not adventure on a play."
William Shakespeere is "The writer of weekely accounts." This exactly
describes him, for the only literature for which he was responsible was
the accounts sent out by his clerk or attorney.
Turning over the pages of the little book on page 9 the cryer calls out
"Then Sylvester, Sands, Drayton, Beaumont, Fletcher, Massinger,
Shakespeare (sic) and Heywood, Poets good and true." This statement
seems to be contradicted so far as Shakespeare is concerned by the
defendant who says on page 31 "Shakespear's (sic) a mimicke" (that is a
mere actor not a poet).
"Beamount and Fletcher make one poet, they
Single, dare not adventure on a play."
Each of these statements seems to be true. And on Page 33
"We should to thy exception give consent
But since we are assur'd, 'tis thy intent,
By this refusall, onely to deferre
That censure, which our justice must conferre
Upon thy merits; we must needs decline
From approbation of these pleas of thine."
That is, Apollo _admits_ that Shakespeare is not a poet but a "mimic,"
the word to which I called your attention in the "Return from Parnassus"
in relation to "this mimick apes." In this little book Shakespeare's
name occurs three times, and on each occasion is spelled differently.
This clear statement that the actor Shakespeare was not a poet but only
a tradesman who sent out his "weekly accounts" is, I think, here for the
first time pointed out. It seems very difficult to conceive of a much
higher testimony to Bacon's pre-eminence in poetry than the fact that he
is placed as "Chancellor of Parnassus" under Apollo. But a still higher
position is accorded to him when it is suggested that Apollo feared that
he himself should lose his crown which would be placed on Bacon's head.
Walter Begbie in "Is it Shakespeare?" 1903, p. 274, tells us:--That
Thomas Randolf, in Latin verses published in 1640 but probably written
some 14 years earlier says that Phoebus was accessory to Bacon's death
because he was afraid lest Bacon should some day come to be crowned King
of poetry or the Muses. Farther on the same writer declares that as
Bacon "was himself a singer" he did not need to be celebrated in song by
others, and that George Herbert calls Bacon the colleague of Sol
George Herbert was himself a dramatic poet and Bacon dedicated his
"Translation of the Psalms" to him "who has overlooked so many of
Mr. Begbie also tells us that Thomas Campion addresses Bacon thus
"Whether the thorny volume of the Law or the Schools or the _Sweet Muse_
It may be worth while here to quote the similar testimony which is borne
by John Davies of Hereford who in his "Scourge of Folly" published about
"To the royall, ingenious, and all-learned
Sr Francis Bacon.
Thy _bounty_ and the _Beauty_ of thy Witt
Comprisd in Lists of _Law_ and learned _Arts_,
Each making thee for great _Imployment_ fitt
Which now thou hast, (though short of thy
Compells my pen to let fall shining _Inke_
And to bedew the _Baies_ that _deck_ thy _Front_;--
And to thy health in _Helicon_ to drinke
As to her _Bellamour_ the _Muse_ is wont:
For thou dost her embozom; and dost vse
Her company for sport twixt grave affaires;
So vtterst Law the liuelyer through thy _Muse_.
And for that all thy _Notes_ are sweetest _Aires_;
_My Muse thus notes thy worth in eu'ry Line,
With yncke which thus she sugers; so, to shine_."
But nothing can much exceed in value the testimony of Ben Jonson who in
his "Discoveries," 1641, says "But his learned, and able (though
unfortunate) _Successor_ [Bacon in margin] is he, who hath fill'd up all
numbers, and perform'd that in our tongue, which may be compar'd or
preferr'd either to insolent _Greece_, or haughty _Rome_."
"He who hath filled up all numbers" means unquestionably "He that hath
written every kind of poetry."
Alexander Pope the poet declares that he himself "lisped in numbers for
the numbers came." Ben Jonson therefore bears testimony to the fact that
Bacon was so great a poet that he had in poetry written that "which may
be compar'd or preferr'd either to insolent _Greece_ or haughty _Rome_."
But in 1623 Ben Jonson had said of the AUTHOR of the plays
_"Or when thy sockes were on
Leaue thee alone, for the comparison
Of all, that insolent_ Greece _or haughtie_ Rome
_Sent forth, or since did from their ashes come."_
Surely the statements in the "Discoveries" were intended to tell us who
was the AUTHOR of the plays.
After perusing these contemporary evidences, and they might be
multiplied, it is difficult to understand how anyone can venture to
dispute Bacon's position as pre-eminent in poetry. But it may be of
interest to those who doubt whether Bacon (irrespective of any claim to
the authorship of the plays) could be deemed to be a great poet, to
quote here the words of Percy Bysshe Shelley, who in his "Defence of
"Bacon was a poet. His language has a sweet and majestic rhythm, which
satisfies the sense, no less than the almost superhuman wisdom of his
philosophy satisfies the intellect. It is a strain which distends and
then bursts the circumference of the reader's mind, and pours itself
forth together with it into the universal element with which it has
The immortal plays are the "Greatest Birth of Time," and contain a
short summary of the wisdom of the world from ancient times, and they
exhibit an extent and depth of knowledge in every branch which has
never been equalled at any period of the world's history. In classic
lore, as the late Mr. Churton Collins recently pointed out, they evince
the ripest scholarship. And this is confirmed by classical scholars all
the world over.
None but the profoundest lawyers can realise the extent of the knowledge
not only of the theory but of the practice of Law which is displayed.
Lord Campbell says that Lord Eldon [supposed to have been the most
learned of judges] need not have been ashamed of the law of Shakespeare.
And as an instance of the way in which the members of the legal
profession look up to the mighty author I may mention that some years
ago, at a banquet of a Shakespeare Society at which Mr. Sidney Lee and
the writer were present, the late Mr. Crump, Q.C., editor of the _Law
Times_, who probably possessed as much knowledge of law as any man in
this country, declared that to tell him that the plays were not written
by the greatest lawyer the world has ever seen, or ever would see, was
to tell him what he had sufficient knowledge of law to know to be
nonsense. He said also that he was not ashamed to confess that he
himself, though he had some reputation for knowledge of law, did not
possess sufficient legal knowledge to realise one quarter of the law
that was contained in the Shakespeare plays.
It requires a philologist to fully appreciate what the enormous
vocabulary employed in the plays implies.
Max Muller in his "Science of Language," Vol. I, 1899, p. 379, says
"A well-educated person in England, who has been at a public school and
at the University ... seldom uses more than about 3,000 or 4,000 words.
... The Hebrew Testament says all that it has to say with 5,642 words,
Milton's poetry is built up with 8,000; and Shakespeare, who probably
displayed a greater variety of expression than any writer in any
language ... produced all his plays with about 15,000 words."
Shakspeare the householder of Stratford could not have known so many as
one thousand words.
But Bacon declared that we must make our English language capable of
conveying the highest thoughts, and by the plays he has very largely
created what we now call the English language. The plays and the sonnets
also reveal their author's life.
In the play of "Hamlet" especially, Bacon seems to tell us a good deal
concerning himself, for the auto-biographical character of that play is
clearly apparent to those who have eyes to see. I will, however, refer
only to a single instance in that play. In the Quarto of 1603, which is
the first known edition of the play of "Hamlet," we are told, in the
scene at the grave, that Yorick has been dead a dozen years; but in the
1604 Quarto, which was printed in the following year, Yorick is stated
to have been dead twenty-three years. This corrected number,
twenty-three, looks therefore like a real date of the death of a real
person. The words in the Quarto of 1604 are as follows:--
Hamlet, Act v, Scene i.
"[Grave digger called.] Clow[n] ... heer's a scull
now hath lyen you i' th' earth 23 yeeres ... this
same scull, sir, was, sir, Yorick's skull, the Kings
_Ham_[_let_]. Alas poore _Yoricke_, I knew him
_Horatio_, a fellow of infinite iest, of most excellent
fancie, hee hath bore me on his backe a thousand
times ... Heere hung those lyppes that I haue
kist, I know not howe oft, where be your gibes now?
your gamboles, your songs, your flashes of merriment,
that were wont to set the table on a roare, not one
now to mocke your owne grinning...."
The King's Jester who died about 1580-1, just twenty-three years before
1604 (as stated in the play), was John Heywood, the last of the King's
Jesters. The words spoken by Hamlet exactly describe John Heywood, who
was wont to set the table in a roar with his jibes, his gambols, his
songs, and his flashes of merriment. He was a favourite at the English
Court during three if not four reigns, and it is recorded that Queen
Elizabeth as a Princess rewarded him. It is an absolutely gratuitous
assumption that he was obliged permanently to leave England when she
became Queen. Indeed it is believed that he was an intimate friend of
the Bacon family, and must have carried little Francis Bacon any number
of times upon his back, and the little fellow must have kissed him still
more oftentimes. The story in the play of "Hamlet" seems, therefore, to
fit in exactly with the facts of Bacon's life; but it is not possible
that the most fertile imagination of the most confirmed Stratfordian can
suppose that the Stratford actor ever saw John Heywood, who died long
before Shakspere came to London.
The Author revealed in the Sonnets.
Bacon also reveals much of himself in the play "As you like it," which
of course means "Wisdom from the mouth of a fool." In that play, besides
giving us much valuable information concerning his "mask" William
Shakespeare, he also tells us why it was necessary for him to write
under a pseudonym.
Speaking in the character of Jaques, who is the alter ego of
Touchstone, he says,
Act ii, Scene 7.
"O that I were a foole,
I am ambitious for a motley coat.
_Duke_. Thou shalt haue one.
_Jag_. It is my onely suite,
Prouided that you weed your better judgements
Of all opinion that growes ranke in them,
That I am wise. I must haue liberty
Wiithall, as large a Charter as the winde,
To blow on whom I please, for so fooles haue:
And they that are most gauled with my folly,
They most must laugh....
Inuest me in my motley: Giue me leaue
To speake my minde, and I will through and through
Cleanse the foule bodie of th' infected world
If they will patiently receiue my medicine."
He also gives us most valuable information in Sonnet 81.
Or I shall liue your Epitaph to make,
Or you suruiue when I in earth am rotten,
From hence your memory death cannot take,
Although in me each part will be forgotten,
Your name from hence immortall life shall haue,
Though I (once gone) to all the world must dye,
The Earth can yeeld me but a common graue,
When you intombed in men's eyes shall lye,
Your monument shall be my gentle verse,
Which eyes not yet created shall ore read,
And toungs to be, your being shall rehearse,
When all the breathers of this world are dead,
You still shall liue (such vertue hath my Pen)
Where breath most breaths euen in the mouths of men.
Stratfordians tell us that the above is written in reference to a poet
whom Shakespeare "evidently" regarded as a rival. But it is difficult to
imagine how sensible men can satisfy their reason with such an
explanation. Is it possible to conceive that a poet should write
_against a rival_
"Your name from hence immortall life shall haue
Though I (once gone) to all the world must dye"
or should say _against_ a _rival_,
"The Earth can yeeld me but a common graue
While you intombed in men's eyes shall lye."
or should have declared "_against_ a _rival_,"
"Your monument shall be my gentle verse"
No! This sonnet is evidently written in reference to the writer's mask
or pseudonym which would continue to have immortal life (even though he
himself might be forgotten) as he says
"Although in me each part will be forgotten."
It is sometimes said that Shakespeare (meaning the Stratford actor) did
not know the value of his immortal works. Is that true of the writer of
this sonnet who says
"my gentle verse
Which eyes not yet created shall ore read"
No! The writer knew his verses were immortal and would immortalize the
pseudonym attached to them
"When all the breathers of this world are dead."
Perhaps the reader will better understand Sonnet 81 if I insert the
words necessary to fully explain it.
Or shall I [Bacon] live your Epitaph to make,
Or you [Shakespeare] survive when I in Earth am rotten,
From hence your memory death cannot take,
Although in me each part will be forgotten.
Your name [Shakespeare] from hence immortal life shall have,
Though I [Bacon] once gone to all the world must die,
The earth can yield me but a common grave,
When you entombed in men's eyes shall lie,
Your monument shall be my [not your] gentle verse,
Which eyes not yet created shall ore read,
And tongues to be your being [which as an author
was not] shall rehearse,
When all the breathers of this world are dead,
You [Shakespeare] still shall live, such vertue
hath my pen [not your own pen, for you never wrote a line]
Where breathe most breaths even in the mouths of men.
This Sonnet was probably written considerably earlier than 1609, but at
that date Bacon's name had not been attached to any work of great
After the writer had learned the true meaning of Sonnet 81, his eyes
were opened to the inward meaning of other Sonnets, and he perceived
that Sonnet No. 76 repeated the same tale.
"Why write I still all one, euer the same,
And keep inuention in a noted weed,
That euery word doth almost sel my name,
Shewing their birth and where they did proceed?"
(Sel may mean spell or tell or possibly betray.)
Especially note that "Invention" is the same word that is used by Bacon
in his letter to Sir Tobie Matthew of 1609 (same date as the Sonnets),
and also especially remark the phrase "in a noted weed," which means in
a "pseudonym," and compare it with the words of Bacon's prayer, "I have
(though in a 'despised weed') procured the good of all men."
[Resuscitatio, 1671.] Was not the pseudonym of the Actor Shakespeare a
very "despised weed" in those days?
Let us look also at Sonnet No. 78.
"So oft have I enuoked thee for my Muse,
And found such faire assistance in my verse,
As every _alien_ pen hath got my use,
And under thee their poesy disperse."
Here again we should understand how to read this Sonnet as under:--
"So oft have I enuoked thee [Shakespeare] for my Muse,
And found such faire assistance in my verse,
As every _alien_ pen hath got my use,
And under thee [Shakespeare] their poesy disperse."
"Shakespeare" is frequently charged with being careless of his works and
indifferent to the piracy of his name; but we see by this Sonnet, No.
78, that the real author was not indifferent to the false use of his
pseudonym, though it was, of course, impossible for him to take any
effectual action if he desired to preserve his incognito, his mask, his
Mr. Sidney Lee and the Stratford Bust.
One word to the Stratfordians. The "Shakespeare of Stratford-on-Avon"
myth has been shattered and destroyed by the mass of inexactitudes
collected in the supposititious "Life of Shakespeare" by Mr. Sidney Lee,
who has done his best to pulverise what remained of that myth by
recently writing as follows:--
"Most of those who have pressed the question [of Bacon being the real
Shake-speare] on my notice, are men of acknowledged intelligence and
reputation in their own branch of life, both at home and abroad. I
therefore desire as respectfully, but also as emphatically and as
publicly, as I can, to put on record the fact, as one admitting to my
mind of no rational ground for dispute, that there exists every manner
of contemporary evidence to prove that Shakspere, the householder of
Stratford-on-Avon, wrote with his own hand, and exclusively by the light
of his only genius (merely to paraphrase the contemporary inscription on
his tomb in Stratford-on-Avon Church) those dramatic works which form
the supreme achievement in English Literature."
As a matter of fact, not a single scrap of evidence, contemporary or
otherwise, exists to show that Shakspere, the householder of
Stratford-on-Avon, wrote the plays or anything else; indeed, the writer
thinks that he has conclusively proved that this child of illiterate
parents and father of an illiterate child was himself so illiterate that
he was never able to write so much as his own name. But Mr. Sidney Lee
seems prepared to accept _anything_ as "contemporary evidence," for on
pages 276-7 (1898 edition) of his "Life of Shakespeare" he writes
"Before 1623 an elaborate monument, by a London sculptor of Dutch birth,
Gerard Johnson, was erected to Shakespeare's memory in the chancel of
the parish church. It includes a half-length bust, depicting the
dramatist on the point of writing. The fingers of the right hand are
disposed as if holding a pen, and under the left hand lies a quarto
sheet of paper."
As a matter of fact, the _present_ Stratford monument was not put up
till about one hundred and twenty years _after_ Shakspeare's death. The
original monument, see Plate 3 on Page 8, was a very different monument,
and the figure, as I have shewn in Plate 5, instead of holding a pen in
its hand, rests its two hands on a wool-sack or cushion. Of course, the
false bust in the existing monument was substituted for the old bust for
the purpose of fraudulently supporting the Stratford myth.
When Mr. Sidney Lee wrote that the present monument was erected before
1623 he did not do this consciously to deceive the public; still, it is
difficult to pardon him for this and the other reckless statements with
which his book is filled. But what are we to say of his words
(respecting the _present_ monument) which we read on page 286? "It was
first engraved--very imperfectly--in Rowe's edition of 1709." An exact
full size photo facsimile reproduction of Rowe's engraving is shown in
Plate 19, Page 77.
[Illustration: Plate. XIX. The Original Stratford Monument, from Rowe's
Life of Shakespeare, 1709]
As a matter of fact, the real Stratford monument of 1623 was first
engraved in Dugdale's "Warwickshire" of 1656, where it appears opposite
to page 523. We can, however, pardon Mr. Sidney Lee for his ignorance of
the existence of that engraving; but how shall we pardon him for citing
Rowe as a witness to the early existence of the present bust? To anyone
not wilfully blinded by passion and prejudice, Rowe's engraving [see
Plate 19, Page 77] clearly shews a figure absolutely different from the
Bust in the present monument. Rowe's figure is in the same attitude as
the Bust of the original monument engraved by Dugdale, and does not hold
a pen in its hand, but its two hands are supported on a wool-sack or
cushion, in the same manner as in the Bust from Dugdale which I have
shewn in Plate 5, on Page 14.
What are we to say respecting the frontispiece to the 1898 edition of
what he is pleased to describe as the "Life of William Shakespeare,"
which Mr. Sidney Lee tells us is "from the 'Droeshout' painting now in
the Shakespeare Memorial Gallery at Stratford-on-Avon"?
As a matter of fact there is no "Droeshout" painting. The picture
falsely so called is a manifest forgery and a palpable fraud, for in it
all the revealing marks of the engraving by Martin Droeshout which
appeared in the 1623 folio are purposely omitted. A full size photo
facsimile of Martin Droeshout's engraving is shewn in Plate 8, pp.
20-21. In the false and fraudulent painting we find no double line to
shew the mask, and the coat is really a coat and not a garment cunningly
composed of two left arms.
Still it does seem singularly appropriate and peculiarly fitting that
Mr. Sidney Lee should have selected as the frontispiece of the romance
which he calls the "Life" of Shakespeare, an engraving of the false and
fraudulent painting now in the Stratford-on-Avon Gallery for his first
edition of 1898; and should also have selected an engraving of the false
and fraudulent monument now in Stratford-on-Avon Church as the
frontispiece for his first Illustrated Library Edition of 1899.
Mr. Sidney Lee is aware of the fact that Martin Droeshout was only
fifteen years old when the Stratford actor died. But it is possible that
he may not know that (in addition to the Shakespeare Mask which
Droeshout drew for the frontispiece of the 1623 folio edition of the
Plays of Shakespeare, in order to reveal, to those who were able to
understand, the true facts of the Authorship of those plays), Martin
Droeshout also drew frontispieces for other books, which may be
similarly correctly characterised as cunningly composed, in order to
reveal the true facts of the authorship of such works, unto those who
were capable of grasping the hidden meaning of his engravings.
One other point it is worth while referring to. The question is
frequently asked, if Bacon wrote under the name of Shakespeare, why so
carefully conceal the fact? An answer is readily supplied by a little
anecdote related by Ben Jonson, which was printed by the Shakespeare
Society in 1842, in their "Notes of Ben Jonson's conversations with
William Drummond of Hawthornden".
"He [Ben Jonson] was dilated by Sir James Murray to the King, for
writting something against the Scots, in a play Eastward Hoe, and
voluntarly imprissonned himself with Chapman and Marston who had written
it amongst them. The report was that they should then [have] had their
ears cut and noses. After their delivery, he banqueted all his friends;
there was Camden, Selden, and others; at the midst of the feast his old
Mother dranke to him, and shew him a paper which she had (if the
sentence had taken execution) to have mixed in the prisson among his
drinke, which was full of lustie strong poison, and that she was no
churle, she told, she was minded first to have drunk of it herself."
This was in 1605, and it is a strange and grim illustration of the
dangers that beset men in the Highway of Letters.
It was necessary for Bacon to write under pseudonyms to conceal his
identity, but he intended that at some time posterity should do him
justice and it was for this purpose that, among the numerous clues he
supplied to reveal himself he wrote "The Tempest" in its present form,
which Emile Montegut writing in the _Revue des Deux Mondes_ in 1865
declared to be the author's literary Testament.
The Island is the Stage. Prospero the prime Duke, the great
Magician, represents the Mighty Author who says "my brother ...
called Anthonio who next thyself of all the world I lov'd" ...
"graves at my command have wak'd their sleepers op'd and let them
forth by my so potent Art" ...
"and deeper than ever plummet sound
He drown my booke."
Yet he does not forget finally to add "I do ... require my Dukedome of
thee, which perforce I know thou must restore."
The falsely crowned and gilded king of the Island who had stolen the
wine (the poetry) "where should they find this grand liquor that hath
gilded them" and whose name is Stephanos (Greek for crown) throws off
at the close of the play, his false crown while Caliban says "What a
thrice double asse was I to take this drunkard for a God."
The mighty Magician Prospero says "knowing I lov'd my bookes, he
furnished me from mine own Library, with volumes, that I prize above my
Dukedome." Bacon when he was dismissed from his high offices, devoted
himself to his books. Not a book of any kind was found at New Place,
Stratford. Bacon's brother "whom next himself he loved" was called
Anthony. "Gentle" Shakespeare of Stratford died from the effects of a
It does matter whether it is thought that the Immortal works were
written by the sordid money-lender of Stratford, the "Swine without a
head, without braine, wit, anything indeed, Ramping to Gentilitie"; or
were written by him who was himself the "Greatest Birth of Time"; the
man pre-eminently distinguished amongst the sons of earth; the man who
in order to "do good to all mankind," disguised his personality "in a
despised weed," and wrote under the name of William Shakespeare.
It does matter, and England is now declining any longer to _dishonour_
and _defame_ the greatest Genius of all time by continuing to identify
him with the mean, drunken, ignorant, and absolutely unlettered, rustic
of Stratford who never in his life wrote so much as his own name and in
all probability was totally unable to read one single line of print.
The hour has come for revealing the truth. The hour has come when it is
no longer necessary or desirable that the world should remain in
ignorance that the Great Author of Shakespeare's Plays was himself alive
when the Folio was published in 1623. The hour has come when all should
know that this the greatest book produced by man was given to the world
more carefully edited by its author as to every word in every column, as
to every italic in every column, as to every apparent misprint in every
column, than any book had ever before been edited, and more exactly
printed than there seems any reasonable probability that any book will
ever again be printed that may be issued in the future.
The hour has come when it is desirable and necessary to state with the
utmost distinctness that
BACON IS SHAKESPEARE.
[Illustration: Plate XX. Reduced Facsimile of Page 136 of the
Shakespeare Folio, 1623]
[Illustration: Plate XXI. Portion of Page 136, full size, as in the
Shakespeare Folio 1623]
Bacon is Shakespeare.
Proved mechanically in a short chapter on the long word
The long word found in "Loves Labour's lost" was not created by the
author of Shakespeare's plays. Mr. Paget Toynbee, writing in the
_Athenoeum_ (London weekly) of December 2nd 1899, tells us the history
of this long word.
It is believed to have first appeared in the Latin Dictionary by
Uguccione, called "Magnae Derivationes," which was written before the
invention of printing, in the latter half of the twelfth century and
seems never to have been printed. Excerpts from it were, however,
included in the "Catholicon" of Giovanni da Geneva, which was printed
among the earliest of printed books (that is, it falls into the class of
books known as "incunabula," so called because they belong to the
"cradle of printing," the fifteenth century).
In this "Catholicon," which, though undated, was printed before A.D.
1500, we read
"Ab _honorifico, hic_ et _hec honorificabilis,--le_ et
--hec honororificabilitas,--tis_ et _hec
honorificabilitudinitas_, et est longissima dictio,
que illo versu continetur--
Fulget Honorificabilitudinitatibus iste."
It is perhaps not without interest to call the reader's attention to the
fact that "Fulget hon|orifi |cabili|tudini|tatibus|iste" forms a neat
Latin hexameter. It will be found that the revelation derived from the
long word Honorificabilitudinitatibus is itself also in the form of a
The long word Honorificabilitudinitatibus occurs in the Quarto edition
of "Loues Labor's Lost," which is stated to be "Newly corrected and
augmented by W. Shakespere." Imprinted in London by W.W. for Cutbert
This is the very first play that bore the name W. Shakespere, but so
soon as he had attached the name W. Shakespere to that play, the great
author Francis Bacon caused to be issued almost immediately a book
attributed to Francis Meres which is called "Palladis Tamia, Wits
Treasury" and is stated to be Printed by P. Short for Cuthbert Burbie,
1598. This is the same publisher as the publisher of the Quarto of
"Loues Labor's lost" although both the Christian name and the surname
are differently spelled.
This little book "Palladis Tamia, Wits Treasury" tells us on page 281,
"As Plautus and Seneca are accounted the best for comedy and tragedy
among the Latines, so Shakespeare among ye English, is the most
excellent in both kinds for the stage; for Comedy, witness his Gentlemen
of Verona, his Errors, his Love Labors lost, his Love Labours wonne, his
Midsummers night dreame, and his Merchant of Venice: for Tragedy, his
Richard the 2, Richard the 3, Henry the 4, King John, Titus Andronicus,
and his Romeo and Juliet."
Here we are distinctly told that eleven other plays are also
Shakespeare's work although only Loues Labors lost at that time
bore his name.
We refer on page 138 to the reason why it had become absolutely
necessary for the Author to affix a false name to all these twelve
plays. For our present purpose it is sufficient to point out that on the
very first occasion when the name W. Shakespere was attached to any
play, viz., to the play called "Loues Labor's lost," the Author took
pains to insert a revelation that would enable him to claim his own when
the proper time should arrive. Accordingly he prepared the page which is
found F 4 (the little book is not paged) in the Quarto of "Loues Labor's
lost" which was published in 1598. A photo-facsimile of the page is
shewn, Page 105, Plate 22.
So far as is known there never was any other edition printed until the
play appeared in the Folio of 1623 under the name of "Loues Labour's
lost," and we put before the reader a reduced facsimile of the whole
page 136 of the 1623 Folio, on which the long word occurs, Page 86,
Plate 20, and we give also an exact full size photo reproduction of a
portion of the first column of that page. Page 87, Plate 21.
On comparing the page of the Quarto with that of the Folio, it will be
seen that the Folio page commences with the same word as does the Quarto
and that each and every word, and each and every italic in the Folio is
exactly reproduced from the Quarto excepting that Alms-basket in the
Folio is printed with a hyphen to make it into two words. A hyphen is
also inserted in the long word as it extends over one line to the next.
The only other change is that the lines are a little differently
arranged. These slight differences are by no means accidental, because
Alms-basket is hyphened to count as two words and thereby cause the long
word to be the 151st word. This is exceedingly important and it was only
by a misprint in the Quarto that it incorrectly appears there as the
150th word. By the rearrangement of the lines, the long word appears on
the 27th line, and the line, "What is A.B. speld backward with the horn
on his head" appears as it should do on the 33rd line. At the time the
Quarto was issued, when the trouble was to get Shakespere's name
attached to the plays, these slight printer's errors in the Quarto--for
they are printer's errors--were of small consequence, but when the play
was reprinted in the Folio of 1623 all these little blemishes were most
The long word Honorificabilitudinitatibus is found in "Loues Labour's
lost" not far from the commencement of the Fifth Act, which is called
Actus Quartus in the 1623 folio, and on Page 87, Plate 21, is given a
full size photo facsimile from the folio, of that portion of page 136,
in which the word occurs in the 27th line.
On lines 14, 15 occurs the phrase, "Bome boon for boon prescian, a
little scratcht, 'twil serve." I do not know that hitherto any rational
explanation has been given of the reason why this reference to the
pedantic grammarian "Priscian" is there inserted.
The mention of Priscian's name can have no possible reference to
anything apparent in the text, but it refers solely and entirely to the
phrase which is to be formed by the transposition of the twenty-seven
letters contained in the long word Honorificabilitudinitatibus; and it
was absolutely impossible that the citation of Priscian could ever have
been understood before the sentence containing the information which is
of the most important description had been "revealed." We say "revealed"
because the riddle could never have been "guessed."
The "revealed" and "all revealing" sentence forms a correct Latin
hexameter, and we will proceed to prove that it is without possibility
of doubt or question the real solution which the "Author" intended to be
known at some future time, when he placed the long word
Honorificabilitudinitatibus, which is composed of twenty-seven letters,
on the twenty-seventh line of page 136, where it appears as the 151st
word printed in ordinary type.
The all-important statement which reveals the authorship of the plays in
the most clear and direct manner (every one of the twenty-seven letters
composing the long word being employed and no others) is in the form of
a correct Latin hexameter, which reads as follows--
HI LUDI F. BACONIS NATI TUITI ORBI
These plays F. Bacon's offspring are preserved for the
This verse will scan as a spondaic hexameter as under
HI LU |DI F | BACO | NIS NA | TI TUI | TI ORBI
HI One long syllable meaning "these."
LUDI Two long syllables meaning "stage plays,"
and especially "stage plays"
in contradistinction to "Circus games."
Julius Caes: 10. Venationes autem Ludosque
et cum collega et separatim edidit).
F, One long syllable. Now for the first time
can the world be informed why the sneer
"Bome boon for boon prescian, a little
scratcht, 'twil serve" was inserted on lines
14, 15, page 136 of the folio of 1623. Priscian
declares that F was a mute and Bacon mocks
him for so doing. Ausonius while giving the
pronunciation of most letters of the alphabet
does not afford us any information respecting
the sound of F, but Quintilian xii. 10, s. 29,
describes the pronunciation of the Roman F.
Some scholars understand him as indicating
that the Roman F had rather a rougher sound
than the English F. Others agree with Dr.
H.J. Roby, and are of opinion that Quintilian
means that the Roman F was "blown out
between the intervals of the teeth with no
sound of voice." (See Roby's Grammar of
the Latin language, 1881, xxxvi.) But Dr. A.
Bos in his "Petit Traite de prononciation
Latine," 1897, asserts that the old Latin manner
of pronouncing F was effe. Even if Dr.
A. Bos is correct it is not at all likely that effe
was a dissyllable, but most probably it would
be sounded very nearly like the Greek "[Greek: phi],"
that is as "pfe." In any case (even if it
were a dissyllable) F would, with the DI
of LUDI, form two long syllables and scan
as a spondee. The use of single consonants
to form long or short syllables was very
common among the Romans, but such appear
mostly in lines impossible to quote.
But the Great Author was well acquainted
with such instances, and in this same page 136,
in lines 6, 7, 8, he gives an example, shewing
that the letter "B," although silent in debt,
becomes, when debt is spelled, one of the four
full words--d e b t, each of which has to be
counted to make up the number "151."
This, which is an example of the great value
and importance of what, in many of the plays,
appears to be merely "silly talk" affords a
strong additional evidence of the correctness
of the "revealed" and "revealing" sentence
which we shew was intended by the author to
be constructed out of the long word. Bacon
therefore was amply justified in making use
of F as a long syllable to form the second
half of a spondee.
BACONIS Three long syllables, the final syllable
being long by position. Pedantic grammarians
might argue that natus being a
participle ought not to govern a genitive
case, but should be followed by a preposition
with the ablative case, and that we
ought to say "e Bacone nati" or "de
Bacone nati." Other pedants have declared
that natus is properly, i.e., classically, said
of the mother only, although in low Latin,
such as the Vulgate, we find 1 John v. 2,
"Natos Dei," "born of God." But the
Author of the plays, who instead of having
"small Latin and less Greek" knew "_All_
Latin and very much Greek," was well aware
that Vergil, Aeneid i. 654 (or 658 when the
four additional lines are inserted at the
beginning) gives us "Maxima natarum
Priami," "greatest of the daughters of
Priam," and in Aeneid ii. 527 "Unus natorum
Priami," "one of the sons of Priam." There
exists therefore the highest classical authority
for the use of "Nati" in the sense of "Sons"
or "offspring" governing a genitive case.
"F. Baconis nati," "Francis Bacon's offspring,"
is therefore absolutely and classically
NATI Two long syllables. A noun substantive
meaning as shewn above "sons" or "offspring."
TUITI Two short syllables and one long syllable,
which last is elided and disappears before the
"o" of orbi. Tuiti which is the same word
as tuti is a passive past participle meaning
saved or preserved. It is derived from
tueor, which is generally used as a deponent
or reflexive verb, but tueor is used by Varro
and the legal writers as a passive verb.
ORBI Two long syllables. The word orbi may
be either the plural nominative of orbus
meaning "deprived" "orphaned," or it may
be the dative singular of Orbis meaning "for
the world." Both translations make good
sense because the plays are "preserved for
the world" and are "preserved orphaned."
The present writer prefers the translation
"for the world," indeed he thinks that to
most classical scholars "tuiti orbi," "preserved
discarded," looks almost like a contradiction
Note on Honorficabilitudinitatibus
BACONIS.--On page 131 is shewn a photogravure of the title page of
Bacon's "De Augmentis," 1645, which is in fact a pictorial
representation of an anagram "Hi ludi F. Baconis nati tuiti orbi." On
this title page we find "Baconis" used as the genitive of Bacon's name
in Latin. Baconis is also found in XIII th century manuscript copies of
Roger Bacon's works, where the title reads "Opus minus Fratris Rogeri
Baconis," and in 1603 there was published in 12º at Frankfurt "Rogeri
Baconis ... De Arte Chymiae."
TUITI.--Pedanticgrammarians such as Priscian whom the author mocks at
in the line "Bome boom for boon precian, a little scratcht, 'twil
serve," falsely tel us that there is a passive verb "tueor" with a past
participle "tutus." As a matter of fact it is the same verb "tueor" that
is used both as a passive and as a deponent, and "tutus" or "tuitus" may
be used indifferently at the pleasure of the writer. Sallust uses
"tutus," not "tuitus," as the past participle of the deponent verb.
Opposite to the next page is shewn a type transcript of the cover or
outside page of a collection of manuscripts in the possession of the
Duke of Northumberland, which were discovered in 1867 at Northumberland
House. Three years later, viz., in 1870, James Spedding published a thin
little volume entituled "A Conference of Pleasure," in which he gave a
full size Facsimile of the original of the outside page which is here
shewn in _reduced type_ facsimile. He also gave a few particulars of the
In 1904 Mr. Frank J. Burgoyne brought out a Collotype Facsimile of every
page that now remains of the collection of MSS. in an edition limited to
250 copies I a fine Royal Quarto at the price of £4 4s. 0d. O f the MSS.
mentioned on the cover nine now remain, and of these, six are certainly
by Francis Bacon; the first being written by him for a masque or
"fanciful devise" which Mr. Spedding thinks was presented at the Court of
Elizabeth in 1592.
The list of contents was written upon this outside page about 1597, and
among those original contents which are now missing were Richard II. and
Richard III. Mr. Spedding was satisfied that these were the so-called
Skakespearean plays. There are also the tiles of various other works to
which it is not now necessary to allude, but the reader's attention
should be especially directed to the (so-called) scribblings. Mr.
Spedding says: "I find nothing either in these later scribblings or in
what remains of the book itself to indicate a date later than the reign
of Elizabeth." The "scribblings" are therefore written by a contemporary
hand. For the purpose of reference I have placed the letters
_a, b, c, d, e_, outside of the facsimile.
(_a_) "honorificabilitudine." This curious long word when taken in
conjunction with the words "your William Shakespeare." which are also
found upon this page, appears to have some reference to the same curious
long word which is found in the ablative plural in "Loves Labour's
lost," which appeared I 1597, and was the play to which Shakespeare's
name was for the first time attached, and, as I shew, in Chapter X., p.
84, it was placed there in order to give with absolute certainty a key
to the real authorship.
(_b_) "By Mr ffrauncis William Shakespeare Baco"--with ffrauncis
written upside down over it and your/yourself written upside down
at the commencement of the line. Baco would require Baconis as
(_c_) "revealing day through every crany peepes." We think that this
is an accurate statement of the revelations here afforded.
[Illustration: Modern Script Facsimile of MS Folio 1 _Reduced to about
one-third the size of the original_]
"William Shakespeare." Almost directly above this
appears also William Shakespeare.
[Illustration: Full-Size Facsimile of Written Ornament on Outside Page
of Northumberland MSS.]
[Illustration: Full-Size Facsimile of Written Ornament in "Les Tenure de
Monsieur Littleton." Annotate by Francic Bacon.]
(_e_) The three curious scrolles at the top right-hand corner are very
similar to the scrolls which are found upon the title page of a law
book entitled, "Les Tenures de Monsieur Littleton," printed in 1591, in
the possession of the writer, which is throughout noted in what the
authorities at the British Museum say is undoubtedly the handwriting of
As I have pointed out upon page 114 and upon various other pages in
my book "upside down" printing is a device continually employed by
the authors of certain books in order to afford revelations
concerning Bacon and Shakespeare. As a whole this curious scribbled
page affords remarkable evidence that William Shakespeare is
"yourself" Francis Bacon.
Now and now only can a reasonable explanation be given for the first
time of the purpose of the reference to Priscian, in lines 14 and 15,
Plate 21, Page 87. And it is a singular circumstance that so far as the
writer is aware not one of the critics has perceived that the mockery of
Priscian forms a neat English iambic hexameter, indeed, in almost all
modern editions of the Shakespeare plays, both the form and the meaning
of the line have been utterly destroyed. In the original the line reads
"Bome boon for boon prescian, a little scracht, 'twil serve."
Perhaps the reader will be enabled better to understand the sneer and
the mockery by reading the following couplet--
A fig for old Priscián, a little scrátcht, 'twil serve
A poet súrely need not áll his rúles observe.
And we still more perfectly understand the purpose of the hexameter form
of the reference to Priscian if we scan the line side by side with the
"revealed" interpretation of the long word honorificabilitudinitatibus.
Bome boon | for boon | prescian | a lit | tle scratcht | 'twil serve
HI LU | DI F | BACO | NIS NA | TI TUI | TI ORBI
These plays F Bacon's offspring are preserved for the world.
This explanation of the real meaning to be derived from the long word
honorificabilitudinitatibus seems to be so convincing as scarcely to
require further proof. But the Author of the plays intended when the
time had fully come for him to claim his own that there should not be
any possibility of cavil or doubt. He therefore so arranged the plays
and the acts of the plays in the folio of 1623 that the long word should
appear upon the 136th page, be the 151st word thereon, should fall on
the 27th line and that the interpretation should indicate the numbers
136 and 151, thus forming a mechanical proof so positive that it can
neither be misconstrued nor explained away, a mechanical proof that
provides an evidence which absolutely compels belief.
The writer desires especially to bring home to the reader the manifest
fact that the revealed and revealing sentence must have been constructed
before the play of "Loues Labor's lost" first appeared in 1598, and that
when the plays were printed in their present form in the 1623 folio the
scenes and the acts of the preceding plays and the printing of the
columns in all those plays as well as in the play of "Loues Labour's
lost" required to be arranged with extraordinary skill in order that the
revealing page in the 1623 folio should commence with the first word of
the revealing page in the original quarto of 1598, and that that page
should form the 136th page of the folio, so that the long word
"Honorificabilitudinitatibus" should appear on page 136, be the 151st
word, and fall upon the 27th line.
Bacon tells us that there are 24 letters in the alphabet (_i_ and _j_
being deemed to be forms of the same letter, as are also _u_ and _v_).
Bacon was himself accustomed frequently to use the letters of the
alphabet as numerals (the Greeks similarly used letters for numerals).
Thus A is 1, B is 2 ... Y is 23, Z is 24. Let us take as an example
Bacon's own name--B=2, a=1, c=3, O=14, n=i3; all these added together
make the number 33, a number about which it is possible to say a good
deal. We now put the numerical value to each of the letters that
form the long word, and we shall find that their total amounts to the
number 287, thus:
H O N O R I F I C A B I L I T U
8 14 13 14 17 9 6 9 3 1 2 9 11 9 19 20
D I N I T A T I B U S
4 9 13 9 19 1 19 9 2 20 18 = 287
From a word containing so large a number of letters as twenty-seven it
is evident that we can construct very numerous words and phrases; but I
think it "surpasses the wit of man" to construct any "sentence" other
than the "revealed sentence," which by its construction shall reveal not
only the number of the page on which it appears--which is 136--but shall
also reveal the fact that the long word shall be the 151st word printed
in ordinary type counting from the first word.
On one side of the facsimile reproduction of part of page 136 of the
1623 folio, numbers are placed shewing that the long word is on the 27th
line, which was a skilfully purposed arrangement, because there are 27
letters in the word. There is also another set of numbers at the other
side of the facsimile page which shews that, counting from the first
word, the long word is the 151st word. How is it possible that the
revealing sentence, "Hi ludi F. Baconis nati tuiti orbi," can tell us
that the page is 136 and the position of the long word is the 151st
word? The answer is simple. The numerical value of the initial letters
and of the terminal letters of the revealed sentence, when added
together, give us 136, the number of the page, while the numerical value
of all the other letters amount to the number 151, which is the number
of words necessary to find the position of the long word
"Honorificabilitudinitatibus," which is the 151st word on page 136,
counting those printed in ordinary type, the italic words being of
The solution is as follows
the initial letters of which are
H L F B N T O
their numerical values being
8 11 6 2 13 19 14 = total 73
and the terminal letters are
I I S I I I
their numerical values being
9 9 18 9 9 9 = total 63
Adding this 63 to 73 we get 136
while the intermediate letters are
U D A C O N I A T U I T R B
their numerical values being
20 4 1 3 14 13 9 1 19 20 9 19 17 2 = 151
The reader thus sees that it is a fact that in the "revealed" sentence
the sum of the numerical values of the initial letters, when added to
the sum of the numerical values of the terminal letters, do, with
mathematical certainty produce 136, the number of the page in the first
folio, which is 136, and that the sum of the numerical values of the
intermediate letters amounts to 151, which gives the position of the
long word on that page, which is the 151st word in ordinary type. These
two sums of 136 and 151, when added together, give 287, which is the sum
of the numerical value of all the letters of the long word
"Honorificabilitudinitatibus," which, as we saw on page 99, amounted to
the same total, 287.
As a further evidence of the marvellous manner in which the Author had
arranged the whole plan, the long word of 27 letters is placed on the
27th line. Can anyone be found who will pretend to produce from the 27
letters which form the word "Honorificabilitudinitatibus" another
sentence which shall also tell the number of the page, 136, and that the
position of the long word on the page is the 151st word?
I repeat that to do this "surpasses the wit of man," and that
therefore the true solution of the meaning of the long word
"Honorificabilitudinitatibus," about which so much nonsense has been
written, is without possibility of doubt or question to be found by
arranging the letters to form the Latin hexameter.
HI LUDI F. BACONIS NATI TUITI ORBI
These plays F. Bacon's offspring are preserved
for the world.
It is not possible to afford a clearer mechanical proof that
THE SHAKESPEARE PLAYS ARE
It is not possible to make a clearer and more definite statement that
BACON IS THE AUTHOR OF THE
It is not possible that any doubt can any longer be entertained
respecting the manifest fact that
BACON IS SHAKESPEARE.
On the revealing page 136 in "Loves Labour's lost."
In the previous chapter it was pointed out that using letters for
numbers, Bacon's name is represented by 33.
B A C O N .
2 1 3 14 13 = 33
and that the long word possesses the numerical value of 287.
H O N O R I F I C A B I L I T U
8 14 13 14 17 9 6 9 3 1 2 9 11 9 19 20
D I N I T A T I B U S
4 9 13 9 19 1 19 9 2 20 18 = 287
In the Shakespeare folio, Page 136, shewn in Plate 20 and Plate 21, on
Pages 86-7, ON LINE 33, we read "What is Ab speld backward with the horn
on his head?"
The answer which is given is evidently an incorrect answer, it is "Ba,
puericia with a horne added," and the Boy mocks him with "Ba most seely
sheepe, with a horne: you heare his learning."
The reply should of course have been in Latin. The Latin for a horn is
cornu. The real answer therefore is "Ba corn-u fool."
This is the exact answer you might expect to find on the line 33, since
the number 33 indicates Bacon's name. And now, and now only, can be
explained the very frequent use of the ornament representing a Horned
Sheep, inside and outside "Baconian" books, under whatever name they may
be known. An example will be found at the head of the present chapter on
page 103. The uninitiated are still "informed" or rather "misinformed"
that this ornament alludes to the celebrated Golden Fleece of the
Argonauts and they little suspect that they have been purposely fooled,
and that the real reference is to Bacon.
It should be noted here that in the Quarto of "Loues Labor's lost,"
see Plate 22, Page 105, if the heading "Loues Labor's lost" be counted
as a line, we read on the 33rd line: "Ba most seely sheepe with a
horne: you heare his learning." This would direct you to a reference
to Bacon, although not so perfectly as the final arrangement in the
folio of 1623.
Proceeding with the other lines in the page, we read:--
"Quis quis, thou consonant?"
This means "Who, who"? [which Bacon] because in order to make the
revelation complete we must be told that it is "Francis" Bacon, so as
to leave no ambiguity or possibility of mistake. How then is it
possible that we can be told that it is Francis Bacon? We read in
answer to the question:
[Illustration: Plate XXII. Facsimile from "Loues Labor Lost," First
"Quis quis, thou consonant?
The last of five vowels if you repeat them, the
fifth if I.
I will repeat them a, e, I.
The Sheepe, the other two concludes it o, u."
Now here we are told that a, e, I, o, u is the answer to Quis quis, and
we must note that the I is a capital letter. Therefore a is followed by
e, but I being a capital letter does not follow e but starts afresh, and
we must read I followed by o, and o followed by u.
[Illustration: Plate XXIII. Facsimile of a Contemporary Copy of a Letter
of Francis Bacon.]
Is it possible that these vowels will give us the Christian name of
Bacon? Can it be that we are told on what page to look? The answer to
both these questions is the affirmative "Yes."
The great Folio of Shakespeare was published in 1623, and in the
following year, 1624, there was brought out a great Cryptographic book
by the "Man in the Moon." We shall speak about this work presently;
suffice for the moment to say that this book was issued as the key to
the Shakespeare Folio of 1623. If we turn to page 254 in the
Cryptographic book we shall find Chapter XIV. "De Transpositione
Obliqua, per dispositionem Alphabeti."
[Illustration: Plate XXIV. FACSIMILES FROM PAGE 255 OF "GU TAVI SELENI
CRYPTOMENYTICES," PUBLISHED 1624. [The Square Table is much enlarged].]
This chapter describes how, by means of square tables, one letter
followed by another letter will give the cypher letter. On the present
page appears the square, which is shown in Plate 24, which enables us to
answer the question "Quis quis."
By means of this square we perceive that "a" followed by "e" gives us
the letter F, that "I" followed by "o" gives us the letter R, and that
"o" followed by "u" gives us the letter A. The answer therefore to Quis
quis (which Bacon do you mean) is Fra [Bacon]. _See_ Plate 23, Page 107.
[Illustration: Plate XXV. FACSIMILE FROM PAGE 2O2b OF "TRAICTE DES
CHIFFRES OU SECRETES MANIERES D'ESCRIRE," PAR VlGENÈRE.]
But what should induce us to look at this particular chapter on page 254
of the Cryptographic book for the solution? The answer is clearly given
in the wonderful page 136 of the 1623 Folio of Shakespeare.
As has been pointed out the numerical value of the long word
Honorificabilitudinitatibus is 287, and the numerical value of Bacon is
33. We have found Bacon from Ba with a horn, and we require the
remainder of his name, accordingly deduct 33 from 287, and we get the
answer 254 which is the number of the required page in the Cryptographic
book of 1624. But the wise Author knew that someone would say "How does
this apply to the 1598 Quarto published twenty-six years before the
great Cryptographic book appeared?" On Plate 24, Page 108, taken from
page 255 of the Cryptographic book of 1624, it is shewn that the
following lines are attached to the square
"Quarta Tabula, ex Vigenerio, pag. 202.b, etc."
=Square table taken from Vigenerio, page 202.b.
This reference is to the work entitled, "Traicte des chiffres ou
secretes manieres d'escrire": par Blaise de Vigenere, which was
published in Paris in 1586. Spedding states (Vol. I. of "Bacon's Letters
and Life," p. 6-8) that Francis Bacon went in 1576 to France, with Sir
Amias Paulet, the English Ambassador. Bacon remained in France until
1578-9, and when in 1623 he published his "De Augmentis
Scientiarum"--(the Advancement of Learning) he tells us that while in
Paris he invented his own method of secret writing. _See_ Spedding's
"Works of Bacon," Vol. 4, p. 445.
The system which Bacon then invented is now known as the Biliteral
Cypher, and it is in fact practically the same as that which is
universally employed in Telegraphy under the name of the Morse Code.
A copy of Vigenere's book will be found in the present writer's Baconian
library, for he knew by the ornaments and by the other marks that Bacon
must have had a hand in its production.
Anyone, therefore, reading the Quarto edition of "Loues Labor's lost,"
1598, and putting _two_ and _two_ together will find on p. 202.b of
Vigenere's book, the Table, of which a facsimile is here given, Plate
25, Page 109. This square is even more clear than the square table in
the great Cryptographic book.
Thus, upon the same page 136 in the Folio, or on F. 4 in the Quarto, in
addition to Honorificabilitudinitatibus containing the revealing
sentence "Hi ludi F Baconis nati tuiti orbi"--"These plays F Bacon's
offspring are entrusted to the world," we see that we are able to
discover on line 33 the name of Bacon, and by means of the lines which
follow that it is Fra. Bacon who is referred to.
Before parting with this subject we will give one or two examples to
indicate how often the number 33 is employed to indicate Bacon.
We have just shewn that on page 136 of the Folio we obtain Bacon's name
on line 33. On page 41 we refer to Ben Jonson's "Every man out of his
Humour." In an extremely rare early Quarto [_circa_ 1600] of that play
some unknown hand has numbered the pages referring to Sogliardo
(Shakespeare) and Puntarvolo (Bacon) 32 and 32 repeated. Incorrect
pagination is a common method used in "revealing" books to call
attention to some statements, and anyone can perceive that the second 32
is really 33 and as usual reveals something about Bacon.
On page 61 we point out that on page 33 of the little book called "The
Great Assizes holden in Parnassus" Apollo speaks. As the King speaks in
a Law Court only through the mouth of his High Chancellor so Apollo
speaks in the supposititious law action through the mouth of his
Chancellor of Parnassus, who is Lord Verulam, i.e. Bacon. Thus again
Bacon is found on Page 33. The writer could give very numerous examples,
but these three which occur incidentally will give some idea how
frequently the number 33 is used to indicate Bacon.
The whole page 136 of the Folio is cryptographic, but we will not now
proceed to consider any other matters contained upon it, but pass on to
discuss the great Cryptographic book which was issued under Bacon's
instructions in the year following the publication of the great Folio of
Shakespeare. Before, however, speaking of the book, we must refer to the
enormous pains always taken to provide traps for the uninitiated.
If you go to Lunaeburg, where the Cryptographic book was published, you
will be referred to the Library at Wolfenbuttel and to a series of
letters to be found there which contain instructions to the engraver
which seem to prove that this book has no possible reference to
Shakespeare. We say, seem to prove, for the writer possesses accurate
photographs of all these letters and they really prove exactly the
reverse, for they are, to those capable of understanding them, cunningly
devised false clues, quite clear and plain. That these letters are
snares for the uninitiated, the writer, who possesses a "Baconian"
library, could easily prove to any competent scholar.
[Illustration: 106 _Surnames_. Plate XXVI.]
Before referring to the wonderful title page of the Cryptographic book
which reveals the Bacon-Shakespeare story, it is necessary to direct the
reader's attention to Camden's "Remains," published 1616. We may
conclude that Bacon had a hand in the production of this book, since
Spedding's "Bacon's Works," Vol. 6, p. 351, and Letters, Vol. 4, p. 211,
informs us that Bacon assisted Camden with his "Annales."
In Camden's "Remains," 1616, the Chapter on Surnames, p. 106, commences
with an ornamental headline like the head of Chapter 10, p. 84, but
printed "_upside down_." A facsimile of the heading in Camden's book is
shewn in Plate 26, page 113.
This trick of the upside down printing of ornaments and even of
engravings is continually resorted to when some revelation concerning
Bacon's works is given. Therefore in Camden's "Remains" of 1616 in the
Chapter on Surnames, because the head ornament is printed upside down,
we may be perfectly certain that we shall find some revelation
concerning Bacon and Shakespeare.
Accordingly on p. 121 we find as the name of a village "Bacon Creping."
There never was a village called "Bacon Creping." And on page 128 we
read "such names as Shakespeare, Shotbolt, Wagstaffe." In referring to
the great Cryptographic book, we shall realise the importance of this
conjunction of names.
On Plate 27, Page 115, we give a reduced facsimile of the title page,
which as the reader will see, states in Latin that the work is by
Gustavus Selenus, and contains systems of Cryptographic writing, also
methods of the shorthand of Trithemius. The Imprint at the end, under a
very handsome example of the double A ornament which in various forms is
used generally in books of Baconian learning, states that it was
published and printed at Lunaeburg in 1624. Gustavus Selenus we are told
in the dedicatory poems prefixed to the work is "Homo lunae" [the man in
[Illustration: Plate XXVII. Facsimile Title Page.]
[Illustration: Plate XXVIII. Left-Handed Portion, much enlarged, of
[Illustration: 202.--Royal Eagle. Facsimile from p. 93 of Boutell's
English Heraldry, 1899. If this is compared with the bird in
Plate XXVIII. it will at once be seen that the later is an Eagle
in full flight.]
[Illustration: Plate XXIX. Right-Hand Portion, much enlarged, of
[Illustration: Plate XXX. Top Portion of Plate XXVII., much enlarged.]
[Illustration: Plate XXXI. Bottom Portion of Plate XXVII., much
Look first at the whole title page; on the top is a tempest with flaming
beacons, on the left (of the reader) is a gentleman giving something to
a spearman, and there are also other figures; on the right is a man on
horseback, and at the bottom in a square is a much dressed up man taking
the "Cap of Maintenance" from a man writing a book.
Examine first the left-hand picture shewn enlarged, Plate 28, Page 118.
You see a man, evidently Bacon, giving his writing to a Spearman who is
dressed in actor's boots (see Stothard's painting of Falstaff in the
"Merry Wives of Windsor" wearing similar actor's boots, Plate 32, Page
127). Note that the Spearman has a sprig of bay in the hat which he
holds in his hand. This man is a Shake-Spear, nay he really is a correct
portrait of the Stratford householder, which you will readily perceive
if you turn to Dugdale's engraving of the Shakespeare bust, Plate 5,
Page 14. In the middle distance the man still holding a spear, still
being a Shake-Speare, walks with a staff, he is therefore a Wagstaffe.
On his back are books--the books of the plays. In the sky is seen an
arrow, no, it is not sufficiently long for an arrow, it is a Shotbolt
(Shakespeare, Wagstaffe, Shotbolt, of Camden's "Remains"). This Shotbolt
is near to a bird which seems about to give to it the scroll it carries
in its beak. But is it a real bird? No, it has no real claws, its feet
are Jove's lightnings, verily, "it is the Eagle of great verse."
Next, look on Plate 29, Page 119, which is the picture on the right of
the title page. Here you see that the same Shake-spear whom we saw in
the left-hand picture is now riding on a courser. That he is the same
man is shewn by the sprig of bay in his hat, but he is no longer a
Shake-spear, he is a Shake-_spur_. Note how much the artist has
emphasised the drawing of the spur. It is made the one prominent thing
in the whole picture. We refer our reader to "The Returne from
Pernassus" (see pp. 47-48) where he will read,
"England affordes those glorious vagabonds
That carried earst their fardels on their backes
Coursers to ride on through the gazing streetes."
Now glance at the top picture on the title page (see Plate 27, Page
115,) which is enlarged in Plate 30, Page 122. Note that the picture is
enclosed in the magic circle of the imagination, surrounded by the masks
of Tragedy, Comedy, and Farce (in the same way as Stothard's picture of
the "Merry Wives of Windsor," Plate 32, Page 127).
[Illustration: Plate XXXII. Scene from "The Merry Wives of Windsor,"
painted by Thomas Stothard.]
The engraving represents a tempest with beacon lights; No; it represents
"The Tempest" of Shakespeare and tells you that the play is filled with
Bacon lights. (In the sixteenth century Beacon was pronounced Bacon.
"Bacon great Beacon of the State.")
We have already pointed out that "The Tempest," as Emile Montegut shewed
in the _Revue des Deux Mondes_ in 1865, is a mass of Bacon's revelations
At the bottom (see Plate 27, Page 115, and Plate 31, Page 123), within
the "four square corners of fact," surrounded with disguised masks of
Tragedy, Comedy, and Farce, is shewn the same man who gave the scroll
to the Spearman, see Plate 29, Page 118 (note the pattern of his
sleeves). He is now engaged in writing his book, while an Actor, very
much overdressed and wearing a mask something like the accepted mask of
Shakespeare, is lifting from the real writer's head a cap known in
Heraldry as the "Cap of Maintenance." Again we refer to our quotation
on page 48.
"Those glorious vagabonds....
Sooping it in their glaring Satten sutes."
Is not this masquerading fellow an actor "Sooping it in his glaring
Satten sute"? The figure which we say represents Bacon, see Plate 28,
wears his clothes as a gentleman. Nobody could for a moment imagine that
the masked creature in Plate 31 was properly wearing his own clothes.
No, he is "sooping it in his glaring Satten sute."
The whole title page clearly shows that it is drawn to give a
revelation about Shakespeare, who might just as well have borne the
name of Shotbolt or of Wagstaffe or of Shakespur, see "The Tempest,"
Act v., Scene I.
"The strong bass'd promontorie
Have I made shake, and by the spurs pluckt up."
There are also revealing title pages in other books, shewing a spear and
an actor wearing a single spur only (see Plate 35, Page 153).
It will be of interest to shew another specially revealing title page,
which for upwards of a hundred years remained unaltered as the title
page to Vol. I. of Bacon's collected works, printed abroad in Latin. A
different engraving, representing the same scene was also published in
France. These engravings, however, were never reproduced or used in
England, because the time for revelation had not yet come. Bacon is
shewn seated (see Plate 33, Page 131). Compare his portrait with the
engraving of the gentleman giving his scroll to the Spearman in the
Gustavus Silenus frontispiece, Plate 27, Page 115, and Plate 28, Page
118. Bacon is pointing with his right hand in full light to his open
book, while his left hand in deepest shadow is putting forward a figure
holding in both its hands a closed and clasped book, which by the cross
lines on its side (the accepted symbol of a mirror) shows that it
represents the mirror up to Nature, i.e., Shakespeare's plays.
Specially note that Bacon puts forward with his LEFT hand the figure
holding the book which is the mirror up to Nature. In the former part of
this treatise the writer has proved that the figure that forms the
frontispiece of the great folio of Shakespeare's plays, which is known
as the Droeshout portrait of Wm. Shakespeare, is really composed of two
LEFT arms and a mask. The reader will now be able to fully realise the
revelation contained in Droeshout's masked figure with its two left arms
when he examines it with the title page shown, Plate 33, Page 131.
[Illustration: Plate XXXIII. Facsimile Title Page.]
Bacon is putting forward what we described as a "figure"; it is a "man"
with false breasts to represent a woman (women were not permitted to act
in Bacon's time), and the man is clothed in a goat skin. Tragedos was
the Greek word for a goat skin, and Tragedies were so called because the
actors were dressed in goat skins. This figure therefore represents the
Tragic Muse. Here in the book called _De Augmentis Scientiarum_, which
formed one part of the Great Instauration, is placed an engraving to
show that another part of the Great Instauration known as Shakespeare's
Plays was issued LEFT-HANDEDLY, that is, was issued under the name of a
mean actor, the actor Shakespeare. This title page is very revealing,
and should be taken in conjunction with the title page of the
Cryptographic book which under the name of Gustavus Silenus, "_Homo
lunae_," the "Man in the Moon," was published in 1624 in order to form a
key to certain cyphers in the 1623 Folio of Shakespeare's Plays.
These two title pages were prepared with consummate skill in order to
reveal to the world, when the time was ripe, that
BACON IS SHAKESPEARE.
The "Householder of Stratford."
We have in Chapter II. printed Mr. George Hookham's list of the very
few incidents recorded concerning Shakespeare's life, but, as we have
already shewn, a great deal of the "authentic history" of the Stratford
clown has in fact been revealed to us. Ben Jonson calls the Stratford
man who had purchased a coat of arms "Sogliardo" (scum of the earth),
says he was brother to Sordido, the miser (Shakspeare was a miser),
describes him as an essential clown (that means that he was a rustic
totally unable to read and write), shews that he speaks "i' th'
straungest language," and calls Heralds "Harrots," and finally sums him
up definitely as a "Swine without a head, without braine, wit, anything
indeed, Ramping to Gentilitie." In order that there should be no
mistake as to the man who is referred to, "Sogliardo's" motto is stated
to be "Not without Mustard," Shakespeare's motto being "Not without
right" (Non sanz droict). Ben Jonson's account of the real Stratford
man is confirmed by Shakespeare's play of "As You Like it," where
Touchstone, the courtier playing clown, says, "It is meat and drinke to
me to see a clowne" (meaning an essential clown, an uneducated rustic);
yet he salutes him as "gentle," shewing that the mean fellow possesses
a coat of arms.
The Clown is born in the Forest of Ardennes (Shakespeare's mother's name
was Arden). He is rich, but only so-so rich, that is rich for a clowne
(New Place cost only £60). He says he is wise, and Touchstone mocks him
with Bacon's words, "The Foole doth think he is wise, but the wise man
knows himself to be a Fool." He says he has "a prettie wit" (pretty wit
is the regular orthodox phrase as applied to Shakespeare). But when
asked whether he is learned, he distinctly replies "No," which means
that he says that he cannot read one line of print. A man who could read
one line of print was at that period in the eye of the law "learned,"
and could not be hanged when convicted for the first time except for
murder. If any persons be found to dispute the fact that the reply "No"
to the question "Art thou learned?" meant in Queen Elizabeth's day "I
cannot read one line of print" such persons must be totally unacquainted
with Law literature.
The play "As You Like it" confirms Ben Jonson's characterisation of
Shakespeare being "an essential clowne." Next let us turn to Ratsei's
_Ghost_ (see p. 49), which, as Mr. Sidney Lee, in his "Life of William
Shakespeare," p. 159, 1898 ed., confesses, refers to Shakespeare. Ratsei
advises the young actor to copy Shakespeare, "and to feed upon all men,
to let none feede upon thee" (meaning Shakespeare was a cruel usurer).
As we shew, page 53, Grant White says: "The pursuit of an impoverished
man for the sake of imprisoning him and depriving him both of the power
of paying his debts and supporting himself and his family, is an
incident in Shakespeare's life which it requires the utmost allowance
and consideration for the practice of the time and country to enable us
to contemplate with equanimity--satisfaction is impossible."
Ratsei continues, "Let thy hand be a stranger to thy pocket" [like the
miser, Shakespeare], "thy hart slow to perform thy tongues promise"
[like the lying rascal Shakespeare], "and when thou feelest thy purse
well lined, buy thee a place of lordship in the country" [as Shakespeare
had bought New Place, Stratford] "that, growing weary of playing, thy
mony may there bring thee to dignitie and reputation" [as Shakespeare
obtained a coat of arms], "then thou needest care for no man, nor not
for them that before made thee prowd with speaking their words upon the
stage." This manifestly refers to two things, one that Shakespeare when
he bought New Place, quitted London and ceased to act; the other that he
continually tried to exact more and more "blackmail" from those to whom
he had sold his name.
Now we begin at last to understand what we are told by Rowe, in his
"Life of Shakespeare," published in 1709, that is, 93 years after
Shakespeare's death in 1616, when all traces of the actual man had been
of set purpose obliterated, because the time for revealing the real
authorship of the plays had not yet come. Rowe, page x., tells us:
"There is one Instance so singular in the Magnificence of this Patron of
Shakespeare's, that if I had not been assur'd that the Story was handed
down by Sir William D'Avenant, who was probably very well acquainted
with his Affairs, I should not have ventured to have inserted, that my
Lord Southampton, at one time, gave him a thousand Pounds, to enable him
to go through with a Purchase which he heard he had a mind to."
This story has been hopelessly misunderstood, because people did not
know that a large sum had to be paid to Shakespeare to obtain his
consent to allow his name to be put to the plays, and that New Place had
to be purchased for him, 1597 (the title deeds were not given to him for
five or six years later), and that he had also to be sent away from
London before "W Shakespeare's" name was attached to any play, the first
play bearing that name being, as we have already pointed out, page 89,
"Loues Labor's lost," with its very numerous revelations of authorship.
Then, almost immediately, the world is informed that eleven other plays
had been written by the same author, the list including the play of
The story of the production of the play of "Richard II." is very curious
and extremely instructive. It was originally acted with the Parliament
scene, where Richard II. is made to surrender, commencing in the Folio
of 1623 with the words--
"Fetch hither Richard, that in common view he may surrender,"
continuing with a description of his deposition extending over 167 lines
to the words--
"That rise thus nimbly by a true king's fall."
This account of the deposition of a king reached Queen Elizabeth's ears;
she was furiously angry and she exclaimed: "Seest thou not that I am
A copy of the play without any author's name was printed in 1597,
omitting the story of the deposition of Richard II.; this was followed
by a second and probably a third reprint in 1597, with no important
alterations, but still without any author's name. Then, after the actor
had been sent away to Stratford, Shakespeare's name was put upon a
fourth reprint, dated 1598.
The story of Richard II.'s deposition was not printed in the play till
1608, five years after the death of Queen Elizabeth.
This history of the trouble arising out of the production of the play of
"Richard II." explains why a name had to be found to be attached to the
plays. Who would take the risk? An actor was never "hanged," he was
often whipped, occasionally one lost his ears, but an actor of repute
would probably have refused even a large bribe. There was, however, a
grasping money-lending man, of little or no repute, that bore a name
called Shaxpur, which might be twisted into Bacon's pen-name
Shake-Speare, and that man was secured, but as long as he lived he was
continually asking for more and more money. The grant of a coat of arms
was probably part of the original bargain. At one time it seems to have
been thought easier to grant arms to his father. This, however, was
found impossible. But when in 1597 Bacon's friend Essex was Earl Marshal
and chief of the Heralds' College, and Bacon's servant Camden (whom
Bacon had assisted to prepare the "Annales"--see Spedding's "Bacon's
Works," Vol. 6, p. 351, and Letters, Vol. 4, p. 211), was installed as
Clarenceux, King-of-Arms, the grant of arms to Shakespeare was
recognised, 1599. Shakespeare must have been provisionally secured soon
after 1593, when the "Venus and Adonis" was signed with his name,
because in the next year, 1594, "The Taming of a Shrew" was printed, in
which the opening scene shews a drunken "Warwickshire" rustic
[Shakspeare was a drunken Warwickshire rustic], who is dressed up as
"My lord," for whom the play had been prepared. (In the writer's
possession there is a very curious and absolutely unique masonic
painting revealing "on the square" that the drunken tinker is
Shakspeare and the Hostess, Bacon.)
The early date at which Shakspeare had been secured explains how in
1596 an application for a grant of arms seems to have been made (we
say seems) for the date may possibly be a fraud like the rest of the
We have referred to Shakspeare as a drunken Warwickshire rustic who
lived in the mean and dirty town of Stratford-on-Avon. There is a
tradition that Shakespeare as a very young man was one of the
Stratfordians selected to drink against "the Bidford topers," and with
his defeated friends lay all night senseless under a crab tree, that was
long known as Shakespeare's crab tree.
Shakespeare's description of the Stratford man as the drunken tinker in
"The Taming of a Shrew" shews that the actor maintained his "drunken"
character. This habit seems to have remained with him till the close of
his life, for Halliwell-Phillipps says: "It is recorded that the party
was a jovial one, and according to a somewhat late but apparently
reliable tradition when the great dramatist [Shakespeare of Stratford]
was returning to New Place in the evening, he had taken more wine than
was conducive to pedestrian accuracy. Shortly or immediately afterwards
he was seized by the lamentable fever which terminated fatally on
Friday, April 23rd."
The story of his having to leave Stratford because he got into very
bad company and became one of a gang of deer-stealers, has also very
We have already proved that Shakspeare could neither read nor write. We
must also bear in mind that the Stratford man never had any reputation
as an actor.
Rowe, p. vi., thus writes: "His Name is Printed, as the Custom was in
those Times, amongst those of the other Players, before some old
Plays, but without any particular Account of what sort of Parts he
us'd to play; and tho' I have inquir'd I could never meet with any
further Account of him this way than that the top of his Performance was
the Ghost in his own Hamlet." The humblest scene-shifter could play
this character, as we shall shew later. What about being manager of a
Theatre? Shakspeare never was manager of a Theatre. What about being
master of a Shakespeare company of actors? There never existed a
Shakespeare company of actors. What about ownership of a Theatre? Dr.
Wallace, says in the _Times_ of Oct. 2nd 1909, that at the time of his
death Shakespeare owned one fourteenth of the Globe Theatre, and
one-seventh of the Blackfriars Theatre. The profit of each of these was
probably exceedingly small. The pleadings, put forth the present value
at £300 each, but as a broad rule, pleadings always used to set forth at
least ten times the actual facts. In the first case which the writer
remembers witnessing in Court, the pleadings were 100 oxen, 100 cows,
100 calves, 100 sheep, and 100 pigs, the real matter in dispute being
one cow and perhaps one calf. If we assume, therefore, that the total
capital value of the holding of W. Shakespeare in both theatres taken
together amounted to £60 in all, we shall probably, even then,
considerably over-estimate their real worth. Now having disposed of the
notion that Shakespeare was ever an important actor, was ever a manager
of a Theatre, was ever the master of a company of actors, or was ever
the owner of any Theatre, let us consider what Rowe means by the
statement that the top of his performance was the Ghost in "Hamlet."
This grotesque and absurd fable has for two hundred years been accepted
as an almost indisputable historical fact. Men of great intelligence in
other matters seem when the life of Shakespeare of Stratford-on-Avon is
concerned, quite prepared to refuse to exercise either judgment or
common sense, and to swallow without question any amount of preposterous
nonsense, even such as is contained in the above statement. The part of
the Ghost in the play of "Hamlet" is one of the smallest and most
insignificant possible, and can be easily played by the most ignorant
and most inexperienced of actors. All that is required is a suit of
armour with somebody inside it, to walk with his face concealed,
silently and slowly a few times across the stage. Then on his final
appearance he should say a few sentences (84 lines in the Folio, 1623),
but these can be and occasionally are spoken by some invisible speaker
in the same manner as the word "_Swear_" which is always growled out by
someone concealed beneath the stage. No one knows, and no one cares, for
no one sees who plays the part, which requires absolutely no histrionic
ability. Sir Henry Irving, usually, I believe, put two men in armour
upon the stage, in order to make the movements of the Ghost more
mysterious. What then can be the meaning of the statement that the
highest point to which the actor, Shakespeare, attained was to play the
part of the Ghost in "Hamlet"? The rumour is so positive and so
persistent that it cannot be disregarded or supposed to be merely a
foolish jest or a senselessly false statement put forward for the
purpose of deceiving the public. We are compelled, therefore, to
conclude that there must be behind this fable some real meaning and some
definite purpose, and we ask ourselves; What is the purpose of this
puzzle? What can be its real meaning and intention? As usual, the Bacon
key at once solves the riddle. The moment we realise that BACON is
HAMLET, we perceive that the purpose of the rumour is to reveal to us
the fact that the highest point to which the actor, Shakespeare, of
Stratford-on-Avon, attained was to play the part of Ghost to Bacon, that
is to act as his "PSEUDONYM," or in other words, the object of the story
is to reveal to us the fact that
BACON IS SHAKESPEARE.
Conclusion, with further evidences from title pages.
Bacon had published eleven plays anonymously, when it became
imperatively necessary for him to find some man who could be purchased
to run the risk, which was by no means inconsiderable, of being supposed
to be the author of these plays which included "Richard II."; the
historical play which so excited the ire of Queen Elizabeth. Bacon, as
we have already pointed out, succeeded in discovering a man who had
little, if any, repute as an actor, but who bore a name which was called
Shaxpur or Shackspere, which could be twisted into something that might
be supposed to be the original of Bacon's pen name of Shake-Speare.
When in 1597 through the medium of powerful friends, by means of the
bribe of a large sum of money, the gift of New Place, and the promise of
a coat of arms, this man had been secured, he was at once sent away from
London to the then remote village of Stratford-on-Avon, where scarcely a
score of people could read, and none were likely to connect the name of
their countryman, who they knew could neither read nor write and whom
they called Shak or Shackspur, with "William Shakespeare" the author of
plays the very names of which were absolutely unknown to any of them.
Bacon, when Shackspur had been finally secured in 1597, brought out in
the following year 1598 "Loues Labor's lost" with the imprint "newly
corrected and augmented by W. Shakespere," and immediately he also
brought out under the name of Francis Meres "Wits Treasury," containing
the statement that eleven other plays, including "Richard II.," were
also by this same Shakespeare who had written the poems of "Venus and
Adonis" and "Lucrece."
Francis Meres says: "As the soule of Euphorbus was thought to live in
Pythagoras so the sweete wittie soule of Ovid lives in mellifluous and
honytongued Shakespeare, witnes his 'Venus and Adonis,' his 'Lucrece,'
his sugred Sonnets among his private friends."
The Sonnets were not printed, so far as is known, before 1609, and they
as has been shown in Chapter 8 repeat the story of Bacon's authorship of
Bacon in 1598, as we have stated in previous pages, fully intended that
at some future period posterity should do him justice.
Among his last recorded words are those in which he commends his name
and fame to posterity, "after many years had past." Accordingly we find,
as we should expect to find, that when he put Shakespeare's name to
"Loues Labor's lost" (the first play to bear that name) Bacon took
especial pains to secure that at some future date he should be
recognised as the real author. Does he not clearly reveal this to us by
the wonderful words with which the play of "Loues Labor's lost" opens?
"Let Fame, that all hunt after in their lyues,
Liue registred vpon our brazen Tombes,
And then grace vs, in the disgrace of death:
When spight of cormorant deuouring Time,
Thendeuour of this present breath may buy:
That honour which shall bate his sythes keene edge,
And make us heires of all eternitie."
Bacon intended that "Spight of cormorant devouring Time" ... honour....
should make [him] heir of all eternitie.
Compare the whole of this grand opening passage of "Loues Labor's lost"
with the lines ascribed to Milton in the 1632 edition of Shakespeare's
plays when Bacon was [supposed to be] dead. No epitaph appeared in the
1623 edition, but in the 1632 edition appeared the following:
"An Epitaph on the admirable Dramaticke Poet,
What neede my Shakespeare for his honour'd bones,
The labour of an Age in piled stones
Or that his hallow'd Reliques should be hid
Under a starrey-pointed Pyramid?
Deare sonne of Memory, great Heire of Fame,
What needst thou such dull witnesse of thy Name?
Thou in our wonder and astonishment
Hast built thy selfe a lasting Monument:
For whil'st, to th' shame of slow-endevouring Art
Thy easie numbers flow, and that each part,
Hath from the leaves of thy unvalued Booke,
Those Delphicke Lines with deepe impression tooke
Then thou our fancy of her selfe bereaving,
Dost make us Marble with too much conceiving,
And so Sepulcher'd, in such pompe dost lie
That Kings for such a Tombe would wish to die."
We have pointed out in Chapter 10 and in Chapter 11 how clearly in
"Loues Labour's lost," on page 136 of the folio of 1623, Bacon reveals
the fact that he is the Author of the Plays, and we have shewn how the
title pages of certain books support this revelation, beginning with the
title page of the first folio of 1623 with its striking revelation given
to us in the supposititious portrait which really consists of "a mask
supported on two left arms."
We may, however, perhaps here mention that instructions are specially
given to all who can understand, in the little book which is said to be
a continuation of Bacon's "Nova Atlantis," and to be by R. H., Esquire,
[whom no one has hitherto succeeded in identifying].
[Illustration: Plate XXXIV Facsimile Title Page.]
On Plate 34, Page 149, we give a facsimile of its Title Page which
describes the book and states that it was printed in 1660.
In this book a number of very extraordinary inventions are mentioned
such as submarine boats to blow up ships and harbours, and telegraphy by
means of magnetic needles, but the portion to which we now wish to
allude is that which refers to a "solid kind of Heraldry." This will be
found on pp. 23-4, and reads as follows:
"We have a solid kind of Heraldry, not made specious with ostentative
pydecoats and titular Atcheivements, which in Europe puzzel the tongue
as well as memory to blazon, and any Fool may buy and wear for his
money. Here in each province is a Register to record the memorable Acts,
extraordinary qualities and worthy endowments of mind of the most
eminent Patricians. Where for the Escutcheon of Pretence each noble
person bears the Hieroglyphic of that vertue he is famous for. E.G. If
eminent for Courage, the Lion; If for Innocence, the White Lamb; If for
Chastity, a Turtle; If for Charity, the Sun in his full glory; If for
Temperance, a slender Virgin, girt, having a bridle in her mouth; If for
Justice, she holds a Sword in the right, and a Scales in the left hand;
If for Prudence, she holds a Lamp; If for meek Simplicity, a Dove in her
right hand; If for a discerning Judgment, an Eagle; If for Humility, she
is in Sable, the head inclining and the knees bowing; If for Innocence,
she holds a Lilie; If for Glory or Victory, a Garland of Baies; If for
Wisdom, she holds a Salt; If he excels in Physic, an Urinal; If in
Music, a Lute; If in Poetry, a Scrowle; If in Geometry, an Astrolabe; If
in Arithmetic, a Table of Cyphers; If in Grammar, an Alphabetical Table;
If in Mathematics, a Book; If in Dialectica she holds a Serpent in
either hand; and so of the rest; the Pretence being ever paralel to his
particular Excellency. And this is sent him cut in brass, and in
colours, as he best phansies for the Field; only the Hieroglyphic is
These references to a solid kind of Heraldry refer to the title pages
and frontispieces of books which may be characterised broadly as
Baconian books, and examples of every one of them can be found in books
extending from the Elizabethan period almost up to the present date.
We place Plate 35, Page 153, before the reader, which is a photo
enlargement of the title page of Bacon's "History of Henry VII.,"
printed in Holland, 1642, the first Latin edition (in 12mo).
Here is seen the Virgin holding the Salt, shewing the Wisdom of the
Author. In her right hand, which holds the Salt, she holds also two
other objects which seem difficult to describe. They represent "a bridle
without a bit," in order to tell us the purpose of the Plate is to
unmuzzle Bacon, and to reveal to us his authorship of the plays known as
But in order to prove that the objects represent a bridle without a bit,
we must refer to two emblem books of very different dates and
First we refer our readers to Plate 36, Page 156, which is a photo
enlargement of the figure of Nemesis in the first (February 1531)
edition of Alciati's Emblems. The picture shews us a hideous figure
holding in her left hand a bridle with a tremendous bit to destroy false
reputations, _improba verba_.
We next put before our readers the photo reproduction of the figure of
Nemesis, which will be found on page 484, of Baudoin's Emblems, 1638.
Baudoin had previously brought out in French a translation of Bacon's
"Essays," which was published at Paris in 1621. In the preface to his
book of Emblems he tells us that he was induced to undertake the task by
BACON (printed in capital letters), and by Alciat (printed in ordinary
type). In this book of Emblems, Baudoin, on page 484, placed his figure
of Nemesis opposite to Bacon's name. If the reader carefully examines
Plate 37 he will perceive that it is no longer a grinning hideous
figure, but is a figure of FAME, and carries a bridle in which there is
found to be no sign of any kind of bit, because the purpose of the
Emblem is to shew that Nemesis will unmuzzle and glorify Bacon.
In order to make the meaning of Baudoin's Emblem still more emphatically
explicit a special Rosicrucian Edition of the same date, 1638, was
printed, in which Baudoin's Nemesis is printed "upside down"; we do not
mean bound upside down, but printed upside down, for there is the
printing of the previous page at the back of the engraving. We have
already alluded on page 113 to the frequent practice of the upside down
printing of ornaments and engravings when a revelation concerning
Bacon's connection with Shakespeare is afforded to us.
[Illustration: Plate XXXV. Facsimile Title Page]
[Illustration: Plate XXXVI. "Nemesis," from Alcaiti's Emblems, 1531]
[Illustration: Plate XXXVII. Page 484 from Baudoin's Emblems 1638]
The writer possesses an ordinary copy of Baudoin's Emblems, 1638, and
also a copy of the edition with the Nemesis printed upside down which
appears opposite Bacon's name. The copy so specially printed is bound
with Rosicrucian emblems outside.
The reader, by comparing Baudoin's Nemesis, Plate 37, and the Title Page
of Henry VII., Plate 35, will at once perceive that the objects in the
right hand of the Virgin holding the salt box are correctly described as
representing a "bridle without a bit," and he will know that a
revelation concerning Bacon and Shakespeare is going to be given to him.
Now we will tell him the whole story. On the right of the picture, Plate
35 (the reader's left) we see a knight in full armour, and also a
philosopher who is, as the roses on his shoes tell us, a Rosicrucian
philosopher. On the left on a lower level is the same philosopher,
evidently Bacon, but without the roses on his shoes. He is holding the
shaft of a spear with which he seems to stop the wheel. By his side
stands what appears to be a Knight or Esquire, but the man's sword is
girt on the wrong side, he wears a lace collar and lace trimming to his
breeches, and he wears actor's boots (see Plate 28, Page 118, and Plate
132, Page 127).
We are therefore forced to conclude that he is an Actor. And, lo, he
wears but ONE SPUR. He is therefore a Shake-spur Actor (on Plate 27,
Page 115, is shewn a Shake-spur on horseback). This same Actor is also
shaking the spear which is held by the philosopher. He is therefore also
a Shake-spear Actor. And now we can read the symbols on the wheel which
is over his head: the "mirror up to nature," "the rod for the back of
fools," the "basin to hold your guilty blood" ("Titus Andronicus," v. 2),
and "the fool's bawble." On the other side of the spear: the spade the
symbol of the workman, the cap the symbol of the gentleman, the crown
the symbol of the peer, the royal crown, and lastly the Imperial crown.
Bacon says Henry VII. wore an Imperial crown. Quite easily now we can
read the whole story.
The "History of Henry VII.," though in this picture displayed on a stage
curtain, is set forth by Bacon in prose while the rest of the Histories
of England are given to the world by Bacon by means of his pseudonym the
Shake-spear Actor at the Globe to which that figure is pointing.
Plain as the plate appears to the instructed eye it seems hitherto to
have failed to reveal to the _un_instructed its clear meaning that
BACON IS SHAKE-SPEARE.
Most fortunately before going to press we were able to see at the Record
Office, Chancery Lane, London, the revealing documents recently
discovered by Dr. Wallace and described by him in an article published
in the March number of _Harper's Monthly Magazine_, under the title of
"New Shakespeare Discoveries." The documents found by Dr. Wallace are
extremely valuable and important. They tell us a few real facts about
the Householder of Stratford-upon-Avon, and they effectually once and
for all dispose of the idea that the Stratford man was the Poet and
Dramatist,--the greatest genius of all the ages.
In the first place they prove beyond the possibility of cavil or question
that "Shakespeare, of Stratford-upon-Avon, Gentleman," was totally
unable to write even so much as any portion of his own name. It is true
that the Answers to the Interrogatories which are given by "William
Shakespeare, of Stratford-upon-Avon, Gentleman," are marked at the
bottom "Wilm Shaxpr," but this is written by the lawyer or law clerk, in
fact "dashed in" by the ready pen of an extremely rapid writer. A full
size photographic facsimile of this "so-called" signature, with a
portion of the document above it, is given in Plate 38, Page 164, and on
the opposite page, in Plate 39, is shewn also in full size facsimile the
real signature of Daniell Nicholas with a portion of the document, which
he signed, above it.
In order that the reader may be able more easily to read the law writing
we give on page 167, in modern type, the portion of the document
photographed above the name Wilm Shaxp'r, and on the same page a modern
type transcript of the document above the signature of Daniell Nicholas.
Any expert in handwriting will at once perceive that "Wilm Shaxp'r" is
written by the same hand that wrote the lower portion of Shakespeare's
Answers to Interrogatories, and by the same hand that wrote the other
set of Answers to Interrogatories which are signed very neatly by
The words "Daughter Marye" occur in the portion photographed of both
documents, and are evidently written by the same law writer, and can be
seen in Plate 38, Page 164, just above the "Wilm Shaxp'r," and in Plate
39, Page 165, upon the fifth line from the top. The name of
"Shakespeare" also occurs several times in the "Answers to
Interrogatories." One instance occurs in Plate 39, Page 165, eight lines
above the name of Daniell Nicholas, and if the reader compares it with
the "Wilm Shaxp'r" on Plate 38, Page 164, it will be at once seen that
both writings are by the same hand.
[Illustration: Plate XXXVIII Full Size Facsimile of part of
"Shakespeare's Answers to the Interrogatories," Discovered by Dr.
Wallace in the British Records Office.]
[Illustration: Plate XXXIX. Full Size Facsimile of part of Daniell
Nicholas' "Answers to the Interrogatories," Discovered by Dr. Wallace in
British Record Office.]
What c'tayne he
. . . . . .
. plt twoe hundered pounds
decease. But sayth that
his house. And they had amo
about their marriadge w'ch
nized. And more he can
ponnt saythe he can saye
of the same Interro for
cessaries of houshould stuffe
his daughter Marye
TYPE FACSIMILE OF PLATE XXXVIII.
* * * * *
Interr this depnnt sayth
that the deft did beare
ted him well when he
by him the said Shakespeare
his daughter Marye
that purpose sent him
swade the plt to the
solempnised uppon pmise of
nnt. And more he can
this deponnt sayth
is deponnt to goe wth
TYPE FACSIMILE OF PLATE XXXIX.
Answers to Interrogatories are required to be signed by the deponents.
In the case of "Johane Johnsone," who could not write her name, the
depositions are signed with a very neat cross which was her mark. In the
case of "William Shakespeare, of Stratford-upon-Avon, Gentleman," who
was also unable to write his name, they are signed with a dot which
might quite easily be mistaken for an accidental blot. Our readers will
see this mark, which is not a blot but a purposely made mark, just under
Dr. Wallace reads the "so-called" signature as Willm Shaks, but the
Christian name is written quite clearly Wilm. And we should have
supposed that any one possessing even the smallest acquaintance with the
law writing of the period must have known that the scroll which looks
like a flourish at the end of the surname is not and cannot be an "s,"
but is most certainly without any possibility of question a "p," and
that the dash through the "p" is the usual and accepted abbreviation for
words ending in "per," or "peare," etc.
Then how ought we, nay how arewe, compelled to read the so-called
signature? The capital S is quite clear, so also is the "h," then the
next mass of strokes all go to make up simply the letter "a." Then we
come to the blotted letter,
[Illustration: Plate XL. FACSIMILES OF LAW CLERKS' WRITING OF THE NAME
"SHAKESPEARE," FROM HALLIWELL-PHILLIPPS' "OUTLINES OF THE LIFE OF
SHAKESPEARE," VOL. 2, 1889.]
this is not and cannot be "kes" or "ks" because in the law writing of
the period every letter "s" (excepting "s" at the end of a word) was
written as a very long letter. This may readily be seen in the word
Shakespeare which occurs in Plate 39 on the eighth line above the
signature of Daniell Nicholas. What then is this blotted letter if it is
not kes or ks? The answer is quite plain, it is an "X," and a careful
examination under a very strong magnifying glass will satisfy the
student that it is without possibility of question correctly described
as an "X." Yes, the lawclerk marked the Stratford Gentleman's
"Answers to Interrogatories" with the name "Wilm Shaxp'r." Does there
exist a Stratfordian who will contend that William Shakespeare, of
Stratford-upon-Avon, Gentleman, if he had been able to write any portion
of his name would have marked his depositions Wilm Shaxp'r? Does there
exist any man who will venture to contend that the great Dramatist, the
author of the Immortal plays, would or could have so signed his name? We
trow not; indeed, such an abbreviation would be impossible in a legal
document in a Court of Law where depositions are required to be signed
With reference to the other so-called Shakespeare's signatures we must
refer the reader to our Chapter III. which was penned before these "New
Shakespeare Discoveries" were announced. And it is perhaps desirable to
say that the dot in the "W" which appears in two of those "so-called"
signatures of Shakespeare, and also in the one just discovered, is part
of the regular method of writing a "W" in the law writing of the period.
In the Purchase Deed of the property in Blackfriars, of March 10th
1612-13, mentioned on page 38, there are in the first six lines of the
Deed seven "W's," in each of which appears a dot. And in the Mortgage
Deed of March 11th 1612-13, there are seven "W's" in the first five
lines, in each of which appears a similar dot. The above-mentioned two
Deeds are in the handwriting of different law clerks.
It may not be out of place here again to call our readers' attention to
the fact that law documents are required to be signed "in full," and
that if the very rapid and ready writer who wrote "Wilm Shaxp'r" were
indeed the Gentleman of Stratford it would have been quite easy for such
a good penman to have written his name in full; this the law writer has
not done because he did not desire to forge a signature to the document,
but desired only to indicate by an abbreviation that the dot or spot
below was the mark of William Shakespeare of Stratford-upon-Avon.
Thus the question, whether William Shakespeare, of
Stratford-upon-Avon, Gentleman, could or could not write his name is
for ever settled in the negative, and there is no doubt, there can be
no doubt, upon this matter.
Dr. Wallace declares "I have had no theory to defend and no hypothesis
to propose." But as a matter of fact his whole article falsely assumes
that "William Shakespeare, of Stratford-upon-Avon, Gentleman," who is
referred to in the documents, is no other than the great Dramatist who
wrote the Immortal plays. And the writer can only express his unbounded
wonder and astonishment that even so ardent a Stratfordian as Dr.
Wallace, after studying the various documents which he discovered,
should have ventured to say:
"Shakespeare was the third witness examined.
Although, forsooth, the matter of his statements
is of no high literary quality and the manner is
lacking in imagination and style, as the Rev.
Joseph Green in 1747 complained of the will, we
feel none the less as we hear him talk that we
have for the first time met Shakespeare in the
flesh and that the acquaintance is good."
As a matter of fact none of the words of any of the deponents are their
own words, but they are the words of the lawyers who drew the Answers to
the Interrogatories. The present writer, when a pupil in the chambers of
a distinguished lawyer who afterwards became a Lord Justice, saw any
number of Interrogatories and Answers to Interrogatories, and even
assisted in their preparation. The last thing that any one of the pupils
thought of, was in what manner the client would desire to express his
own views. They drew the most plausible Answers they could imagine,
taking care that their words were sufficiently near to the actual facts
for the client to be able to swear to them.
The so-called signature "Wilm Shaxp'r," is written by the lawyer or law
clerk who wrote the lower part of Shakespeare's depositions, and this
same clerk also wrote the depositions above the name of another witness
who really _signs_ his own name, viz., "Daniell Nicholas." The only mark
William Shakespeare put to the document was the blot above which the
abbreviated name "Wilm Shaxp'r" was written by the lawyer or law clerk.
The documents shew that Shakespeare of Stratford occasionally "lay" in
the house in Silver Street, and Ben Jonson's words in "The Staple of
News" (Third Intermeane; Act iii.), to which Dr. Wallace refers viz.,
that "Siluer-Streete" was "a good seat for a Vsurer" are very
informing, because as we have before pointed out the Stratford man was
a cruel usurer.
Dr. Wallace's contention that Mountjoy, the wig-maker, of the corner
house in Silver Street where Shakespeare, of Stratford-upon-Avon,
Gentleman, occasionally slept, was the original of the name of the
Herald in Henry V. really surpasses, in want of knowledge of History,
anything that the writer has ever previously encountered, and he is
afraid that it really is a measure of the value of Dr. Wallace's other
inferences connecting the illiterate Stratford Rustic with the great
Dramatist who "took all knowledge for his province."
Dr. Wallace's "New Shakespeare Discoveries" are really extremely
valuable and informing, and very greatly assist the statements which the
writer has made in the previous chapters, viz., that the Stratford
Householder was a mean Rustic who was totally unable to read or to
write, and was not even an actor of repute, but was a mere hanger-on at
the Theatre. Indeed, the more these important documents are examined the
clearer it will be perceived that, as Dr. Wallace points out, they shew
us that the real William Shakespeare, of Stratford-upon-Avon, gentleman,
was not the "Aristocrat," whom Tolstoi declares the author of the plays
to have been, but was in fact a man who resided [occasionally when he
happened to revisit London] "in a hardworking family," a man who was
familiar with hairdressers and their apprentices, a man who mixed as an
equal among tradesmen in a humble position of life, who referred to him
as "One Shakespeare." These documents prove that "One Shakespeare" was
not and could not have been the "poet and dramatist." In a word these
documents strongly confirm the fact that
BACON IS SHAKESPEARE.
[Illustration: Plate XLI. Facsimile of the Dedication of Powell's
"Attourney's Academy," 1630]
The facsimile shewn in Plate 41, Page 176, is from "The Attourney's
Academy," 1630. The reader will perceive that the ornamental heading is
printed upside down. In the ordinary copies it is not so printed, but
only in special copies such as that possessed by the writer; the object
of the upside-down printing being, as we have already pointed out in
previous pages, to reveal, to those deemed worthy of receiving it, some
secret concerning Bacon.
In the present work, while we have used our utmost endeavour to place
in the vacant frame, the true portrait of him who was the wonder and
mystery of his own age and indeed of all ages, we have never failed to
remember the instructions given to us in "King Lear":--
"Have more than thou showest,
Speak less than thou knowest."
Our object has been to supply exact and positive information and to
confirm it by proofs so accurate and so certain as to compel belief and
render any effective criticism an impossibility.
It may however not be without advantage to those who are becoming
convinced against their will, if we place before them a few of the
utterances of men of the greatest distinction who, without being
furnished with the information which we have been able to afford to our
readers, were possessed of sufficient intelligence and common sense to
perceive the truth respecting the real authorship of the Plays.
LORD PALMERSTON, b. 1784, d. 1865.
Viscount Palmerston, the great British statesman, used to say that he
rejoiced to have lived to see three things--the re-integration of Italy,
the unveiling of the mystery of China and Japan, and the explosion of
the Shakespearian illusions.--_From the Diary of the Right Hon.
Mount-Stewart E. Grant_.
LORD HOUGHTON, b. 1809, d. 1885.
Lord Houghton (better known as a statesman under the name of Richard
Monckton Milnes) reported the words of Lord Palmerston, and he also told
Dr. Appleton Morgan that he himself no longer considered Shakespeare,
the actor, as the author of the Plays.
SAMUEL TAYLOR COLERIDGE, b. 1772, d. 1834.
Samuel Taylor Coleridge, the eminent British critic and poet, although
he assumed that Shakespeare was the author of the Plays, rejected the
facts of his life and character, and says: "Ask your own hearts, ask
your own common sense, to conceive the possibility of the author of the
Plays being the anomalous, the wild, the irregular genius of our daily
criticism. What! are we to have miracles in sport? Does God choose
idiots by whom to convey divine truths to man?"
JOHN BRIGHT, b. 1811, d. 1889.
John Bright, the eminent British statesman, declared: "Any man that
believes that William Shakespeare of Stratford wrote Hamlet or Lear is a
fool." In its issue of March 27th 1889, the _Rochdale Observer_ reported
John Bright as scornfully angry with deluded people who believe that
Shakespeare wrote Othello.
RALPH WALDO EMERSON, b. 1803, d. 1882.
Ralph Waldo Emerson, the great American philosopher and poet, says: "As
long as the question is of talent and mental power, the world of men
has not his equal to show.... The Egyptian verdict of the Shakespeare
Societies comes to mind that he was a jovial actor and manager. I
cannot marry this fact to his verse."--_Emerson's Works. London, 1883.
Vol. 4, p. 420_.
JOHN GREENLEAF WHITTIER, b. 1807, d. 1892.
John Greenleaf Whittier, the American poet, declared: "Whether Bacon
wrote the wonderful plays or not, I am quite sure the man Shakspere
neither did nor could."
DR. W. H. FURNESS, b. 1802, d. 1891.
Dr. W. H. Furness, the eminent American scholar, who was the father of
the Editor of the Variorum Edition of Shakespeare's Works, wrote to
Nathaniel Holmes in a letter dated Oct. 29th 1866: "I am one of the many
who have never been able to bring the life of William Shakespeare and
the plays of Shakespeare within planetary space of each other. Are there
any two things in the world more incongruous? Had the plays come down to
us anonymously, had the labor of discovering the author been imposed
upon after generations, I think we could have found no one of that day
but F. Bacon to whom to assign the crown. In this case it would have
been resting now on his head by almost common consent."
MARK TWAIN, b. 1835, d. 1910.
Samuel Langhorne Clemens, who wrote under the pseudonym of Mark Twain,
was,--it is universally admitted,--one of the wisest of men. Last year
(1909) he published a little book with the title, "Is Shakespeare dead?"
In this he treats with scathing scorn those who can persuade themselves
that the immortal plays were written by the Stratford clown. He writes,
pp. 142-3: "You can trace the life histories of the whole of them [the
world's celebrities] save one far and away the most colossal prodigy of
the entire accumulation--Shakespeare. About him you can find out
_nothing_. Nothing of even the slightest importance. Nothing worth the
trouble of stowing away in your memory. Nothing that even remotely
indicates that he was ever anything more than a distinctly common-place
person--a manager, an actor of inferior grade, a small trader in a
small village that did not regard him as a person of any consequence,
and had forgotten him before he was fairly cold in his grave. We can go
to the records and find out the life-history of every renowned
_race-horse_ of modern times--but not Shakespeare's! There are many
reasons why, and they have been furnished in cartloads (of guess and
conjecture) by those troglodytes; but there is one that is worth all the
rest of the reasons put together, and is abundantly sufficient all by
itself--_he hadn't any history to record_. There is no way of getting
around that deadly fact. And no sane way has yet been discovered of
getting round its formidable significance. Its quite plain significance
--to any but those thugs (I do not use the term unkindly) is, that
Shakespeare had no prominence while he lived, and none until he had been
dead two or three generations. The Plays enjoyed high fame from the
PRINCE BISMARCK, b. 1815, d. 1898.
We are told in Sydney Whitman's "Personal Reminiscences of Prince
Bismarck," pp. 135-6, that in 1892, Prince Bismarck said, "He could not
understand how it were possible that a man, however gifted with the
intuitions of genius, could have written what was attributed to
Shakespeare unless he had been in touch with the great affairs of state,
behind the scenes of political life, and also intimate with all the
social courtesies and refinements of thought which in Shakspeare's time
were only to be met with in the highest circles."
"It also seemed to Prince Bismarck incredible that the man who had
written the greatest dramas in the world's literature could of his own
free will, whilst still in the prime of life, have retired to such a
place as Stratford-on-Avon and lived there for years, cut off from
intellectual society, and out of touch with the world."
The foregoing list of men of the very greatest ability and intelligence
who were able clearly to perceive the absurdity of continuing to accept
the commonly received belief that the Mighty Author of the immortal
Plays was none other than the mean rustic of Stratford, might be
extended indefinitely, but the names that we have mentioned are amply
sufficient to prove to the reader that he will be in excellent company
when he himself realises the truth that
BACON IS SHAKESPEARE.
A NEUER WRITER, TO AN EUER READER. NEWES.
Eternall reader, you haue heere a new play, neuer stal'd with the Stage,
neuer clapper-clawd with the palmes of the vulger, and yet passing full
of the palme comicall; for it is a birth of your braine, that neuer
under-tooke any thing commicall, vainely: And were but the vaine names
of commedies changde for the titles of Commodities, or of Playes for
Pleas; you should see all those grand censors, that now stile them such
vanities, flock to them for the maine grace of their grauities:
especially this authors Commedies, that are so fram'd to the life, that
they serve for the most common Commentaries, of all the actions of our
Hues shewing such a dexteritie, and power of witte, that the most
displeased with Playes are pleasd with his Commedies.....
And beleeue this, that when hee is gone, and his Commedies out of sale,
you will scramble for them, and set up a new English Inquisition. Take
this for a warning, and at the perrill of your pleasures losse, and
Judgements, refuse not, nor like this the lesse, for not being sullied,
with the smoaky breath of the multitude.
ADDENDA ET CORRIGENDA.
Footnote to page 45. There was a forest of Arden in Warwickshire.
Footnote to page 51. This Richard Quyney's son Thomas married 10th
February 1616, Judith, William Shakespeare's younger daughter, who, like
her father, the supposed poet, was totally illiterate, and signed the
Register with a mark.
Footnote to page 62. In 1615, although nothing of poetical importance
bearing Bacon's name had been published, we find in Stowe's "Annales,"
p. 811, that Bacon's name appears seventh in the list there given of
P. 5. For "knew little Latin" read "had small Latin."
P. 29. For "line 511" read "line 512."
P. 81. For "Montegut" read "Montegut."
For "Greek for crowned" read "Greek for
P. 93 & 94. For "Quintillian" read "Quintilian."
P. 133. For "Greek name" read "Greek word."
FOURMES AND ELEGANCYES
PREFACE TO PROMUS
To these Essays I have attached a carefully collated reprint of Francis
Bacon's "Promus of Formularies and Elegancies," a work which is to be
found in Manuscript at the British Museum in the Harleian Collection
The folios at present known are numbered from 83 to 132, and are
supposed to have been written about A.D. 1594-6, because folio 85 is
dated December 5th 1594, and folio 114, January 27 1595.
The pagination of the MS. is modern, and was inserted for reference
purposes when the Promus was bound up in one volume together with
certain other miscellaneous manuscripts which are numbered from 1 to 82,
and from 133 onwards.
A facsimile of a portion of a leaf of the Promus MS., folio 85, is given
on pages 190-91, in order to illustrate Bacon's handwriting, and also to
shew his method of marking the entries. It will be perceived that some
entries have lines //// drawn across the writing, while upon others
marks similar to the capital letters T, F, and A are placed at the end
of the lines. But as the Promus is here printed page for page as in the
manuscript, I am not raising the question of the signification of these
marks, excepting only to say they indicate that Bacon made considerable
use of these memoranda.
"Promus" means larder or storehouse, and these "Fourmes, Formularies and
Elegancyes" appear to have been intended as a storehouse of words and
phrases to be employed in the production of subsequent literary works.
Mrs. Pott was the first to print the "Promus," which, with translations
and references, she published in 1883. In her great work, which really
may be described as monumental, Mrs. Pott points out, by means of some
thousands of quotations, how great a use appears to have been made of
the "Promus" notes, both in the acknowledged works of Bacon and in the
plays which are known as Shakespeare's.
Mrs. Pott's reading of the manuscript was extremely good, considering
the great difficulty experienced in deciphering the writing. But I
thought it advisable when preparing a reprint to secure the services of
the late Mr. F. B. Bickley, of the British Museum, to carefully revise
the whole of Bacon's "Promus." This task he completed and I received
twenty-four proofs, which I caused to be bound with a title page in
1898. There were no other copies, the whole of the type having
unfortunately been broken up. The proof has again been carefully
collated with the original manuscript and corrected by Mr. F. A.
Herbert, of the British Museum, and I have now reprinted it here, as I
am satisfied that the more Bacon's Promus--the Storehouse--is examined,
the more it will be recognised how large a portion of the material
collected therein has been made use of in the Immortal Plays, and I
therefore now issue the Promus with the present essay as an additional
proof of the identity of Bacon and Shakespeare.
[Illustration: Plate XLII. Facsimile of portion of Folio 85 of the
Original MS of Bacon's "Promus." see page 199]
[Illustration: Plate XLIII. Portrait of Francis Bacon, from a Painting
by Van Somers. Formerly in the Collection of the Duke of Fife]
Promus of Formularies.
_Folio 83, front_.
Ingenuous honesty and yet with opposition and
Corni contra croci good means against badd, homes
In circuitu ambulant impij; honest by antiperistasis.
Siluj a bonis et dolor meus renouatus est.
Credidj propter quod locutus sum.
Memoria justi cum laudibus at impiorum nomen
Justitiamque omnes cupida de mente fugarunt.
Non recipit stultus verba prudential nisi ea dixeris
quaee uersantur in corde ejus
Veritatem erne et noli vendere
Qui festinat ditari non erat insons
Nolite dare sanctum canibus.
Qui potest capere capiat
Quoniam Moses ad duritiam cordis uestri permisit
Obedire oportet deo magis quam hominibus.
Et vniuscujusque opus quale sit probabit ignis
Non enim possumus aliquid aduersus ueritatem sed
_Folio 83, front--continued_.
For which of y'e good woorkes doe yow stone me
Quorundam hominum peccata praecedunt ad judicium
Bonum certamen certauj
Sat patriae priamoque datum.
Ilicet obruimur numero.
Atque animis illabere nostris
Hoc praetexit nomine culpam.
Procul o procul este prophani
Magnanimj heroes nati melioribus annis
_Folio 83, back_.
Ille mihi ante alios fortunatusque laborum
Egregiusque animi qui ne quid tale videret
Procubuit moriens et humum semel ore momordit
Fors et uirtus miscentur in vnum.
Non ego natura nec sum tam callidus vsu.
aeuo rarissima nostro simplicitas
Viderit vtilitas ego cepta fideliter edam.
Prosperum et foelix scelus, virtus vocatur
Tibi res antiquas laudis et artis
Inuidiam placare paras uirtute relicta.
Iliacos intra muros peccatur et extra
Homo sum humanj a me nil alienum puto.
The grace of God is woorth a fayre
Black will take no other hue
Vnum augurium optimum tueri patria.
Exigua res est ipsa justitia
Dat veniam coruis uexat censura columbas.
Homo hominj deus
Semper virgines furiae; Cowrting a furye
Di danarj di senno et di fede
Ce ne manco che tu credj
Chi semina spine non vada discalzo
Mas vale a quien Dios ayuda que a quien mucho
Quien nesciamente pecca nesciamente ua al infierno
Quien ruyn es en su uilla
Ruyn es en Seuilla
De los leales se hinchen los huespitales
_Folio 84, front_.
We may doe much yll or we doe much woorse
Vultu laeditur saepe pietas.
Difficilia quae pulchra
Conscientia mille testes.
Summum Jus summa injuria
Nequiequam patrias tentasti lubricus artes.
Et monitj meliora sequamur
Nusquam tuta fides
Discite Justitiam moniti et non temnere diuos
Quisque suos patimur manes.
Extinctus amabitur idem.
Optimus ille animi vindex laedentium pectus
Vincula qui rupit dedoluitque semel.
Virtue like a rych geme best plaine sett
Quibus bonitas a genere penitus insita est
ij iam non mali esse nolunt sed nesciunt
Oeconomicae rationes publicas peruertunt.
Divitiae Impedimenta virtutis; The bagage of
Habet et mors aram.
Nemo virtuti invidiam reconciliauerit praeter
Turpe proco ancillam sollicitare Est autem
virtutis ancilia laus.
Si suum cuique tribuendum est certe et venia
Qui dissimulat liber non est
Leue efficit jugum fortunae jugum amicitiae
Omnis medecina Innouatio
_Folio 84, front--continued_.
Auribus mederi difficillimum.
Suspitio fragilem fidem soluit fortem incendit
Pauca tamen suberunt priscae vestigia fraudis
Dulce et decorum est pro patria mori
Mors et fugacem persequitur virum.
Danda est hellebori multo pars maxima avar [is]
_Folio 84, back_.
Minerall wytts strong poyson and they be not
Ametallado fayned inameled.
Totum est majus sua parte against factions and
Galens compositions not paracelsus separations
Full musike of easy ayres withowt strange concordes
In medio non sistit uirtus
Totem est quod superest
A stone withowt foyle
A whery man that lookes one way and pulls another
Mors in Olla poysonings
[Sidenote up the left margin oriented at ninety degrees to the text:
_Folio 85, front_.
Dec. 5, 1594.
// Suauissima vita indies meliorem fierj
The grace of God is woorth a faire
Mors in olla F
// No wise speech thowgh easy and voluble.
Notwithstanding his dialogues (of one that giueth
life to his speach by way of quaestion). T
He can tell a tale well (of those cowrtly giftes of
speach w'ch. are better in describing then in
A goode Comediante T (of one that hath good
grace in his speach)
To commend Judgments.
// To comend sense of law
// Cunyng in the humors of persons but not in the
condicons of actions
Stay a littell that we make an end the sooner. A
// A fooles bolt is soone shott
His lippes hang in his light. A. T
// Best we lay a straw hear
A myll post thwitten to a pudding pricke T
// One swallo maketh no sumer
L'Astrologia e vera ma l'astrologuo non sj truoua
// Hercules pillers non vltra. T
// He had rather haue his will then his wyshe. T
Well to forgett
Make much of yourselfe
_Folio 85, front--continued_.
Wyshing yow all &c and myself occasion to doe
// I shalbe gladd to vnderstand your newes but none
// rather then some ouerture whearin I may doe
// yow service
// Ceremonyes and green rushes are for strangers T
How doe yow? They haue a better question in cheap side w'lak ye
// Poore and trew. Not poore therefore not trew T
_Folio 85, back_.
Tuque Inuidiosa vestustas. T
Licentia sumus omnes deteriores. T
Qui dat nivem sicut lanam T
Lilia agri non laborant neque nent T
Mors omnia solvit T
// A quavering tong.
like a cuntry man that curseth the almanach. T
Ecce duo gladij his. T
Arnajore ad minorem. T
In circuitu ambulant impij T
Exijt sermo inter fratres quod discipulus iste non
Omne majus continet in se mjnus T
Sine vlla controuersia quod minus est majore
benedic ... T
She is light she may be taken in play T
He may goe by water for he is sure to be well
// Small matters need sollicitacion great are remem-
bred of themselues
The matter goeth so slowly forward that I haue
almost forgott it my self so as I maruaile not
if my frendes forgett
Not like a crabb though like a snaile
Honest men hardly chaung their name. T
The matter thowgh it be new (if that be new wch)
hath been practized in like case thowgh not in
I leaue the reasons to the parties relacions and the
consyderacion of them to your wysdome
_Folio 86, front_.
I shall be content my howrs intended for service
leaue me in liberty
// It is in vayne to forbear to renew that greef by
// speach w'ch the want of so great a comfort must
// needes renew.
// As I did not seeke to wynne your thankes so your
// courteous acceptacion deserueth myne
// The vale best discouuereth the hill T.
// Sometymes a stander by seeth more than a plaier T.
The shortest foly is the best. T.
// I desire no secrett newes but the truth of comen
// Yf the bone be not trew sett it will neuer be well
till it be broken. T.
// Cheries and newes fall price soonest. T.
You vse the lawyers fourme of pleading T.
// The difference is not between yow and me but
between your proffite and my trust
// All is not in years some what is in howres well
// Offer him a booke T
// Why hath not God sent yow my mynd or me your
// I thinke it my dowble good happ both for the
obteynyng and for the mean.
// Shutt the doore for I mean to speak treason T.
I wysh one as fytt as I am vnfitt
I doe not onely dwell farre from neighbors but near
yll neighbors. T
_Folio 86, front--continued_.
// As please the paynter T.
Receperunt mercedem suam. T.
Secundum tidem vestram fiet vobis
Ministerium meum honorificabo
_Folio 86, back_.
Beati mortuj qui moriuntur in domino
Detractor portat Diabolum in lingua T
frangimur heu fatis inquit ferimurque procella
Nunc ipsa vocat res
Dij meliora pijs erroremque hostibus illum
Aliquisque malo fuit vsus in illo
Vsque acleo latet vtilitas
Et tamen arbitrium que, rit res ista duorum.
Vt esse phebi dulcius lumen solet
Jam jam cadentis
Velle suum cuique est nee voto viuitur vno
Who so knew what would be dear
Nead be a marchant but a year.
Blacke will take no other hew
He can yll pipe that wantes his vpper lip
Nota res mala optima
Balbus balbum rectius intelligit
L' agua va al mar
A tyme to gett and a tyme to loose
Nee dijs nee viribus equis
Vnum pro multis dabitur caput
Mitte hanc de pectore curam
Neptunus ventis impleuit vela secundis
A brayne cutt with facettes T
T Yow drawe for colors but it prooueth contrarie
T Qui in paruis non distinguit in magnis labitur.
Every thing is subtile till it be conceyued
_Folio 87, front_.
That y't. is forced is not forcible
More ingenious then naturall
Quod longe jactum est leviter ferit
Doe yow know it? Hoc solum scio quod nihil scio
I know it? so say many
Now yow say somewhat.s. euen when yow will; now
yow begynne to conceyue I begynne to say.
What doe yow conclude vpon that? etiam tentas
All is one.s. Contrariorum eadam est ratio.
Repeat your reason.s. Bis ac ter pulchra.
Hear me owt.s. you were neuer in.
Yow iudg before yow vnderstand.s. I iudg as I vnderstand.
You goe from the matter.s. But it was to folow yow.
Come to the poynt.s. why I shall not find yow thear
Yow doe not vnderstand y'e poynt.s. for if I did.
Let me make an end of my tale.s. That which I
will say will make an end of it
Yow take more then is graunted.s.
you graunt lesse then is prooued
Yow speak colorably.s. yow may not say truly.
That is not so by your fauour.s. But by my reason
it is so
_Folio 87, back_.
It is so I will warrant yow.s. yow may warrant me
but I thinke I shall not vowche yow
Awnswere directly.s. yow mean as you may direct
Awnswere me shortly.s. yea that yow may coment
The cases will come together.s. It wilbe to fight
Audistis quia dictum est antiquis
Secundum hominem dico
Et quin non novit talia?
Hoc praetexit nomine culpa
Et fuit in toto notissima fabula celo
Quod quidam facit
Nee nihil neque omnia sunt quae dicit
Facete nunc demum nata ista est oratio
Qui mal intend pis respond
Tum decujt cum sceptra dabas
En haec promissa fides est?
Proteges eos in tabernaculo tuo a contradictione
[Greek: prin to thronein katathronein epistasai]
Sicut audiuimus sic vidimus
Credidj propter quod locutus sum.
Quj erudit derisorem sibj injuriam facit
Super mjrarj ceperunt philosopharj
_Folio 88, front_.
Prudens celat scientiam stultus proclamat stultitiam
Querit derisor sapientiam nee invenit eam.
Non recipit stultus verba prudentie nisi ea dixeris
quae sunt in corde ejus
Lucerna Dej spiraculum hominis
Veritatem eme et noli vendere
Melior claudus in via quam cursor extra viam.
The glory of God is to conceale a thing and the
glory of man is to fynd owt a thing.
Melior est finis orationis quam principium.
Injtium verborum ejus stultitia et novissimum oris
illius pura insania
Verba sapientium sicut aculej et vebut clavj in
Quj potest capere capiat
Vos adoratis quod nescitis
Vos nihil scitis
Quod est veritas.
Quod scripsj scripsj
Nolj dicere rex Judeorum sed dicens se regem
Virj fratres liceat audacter dicere apud vos
Quod uult seminator his verborum dicere
_Folio 88, back_.
Multe te litere ad Insaniam redigunt.
Sapientiam loquiraur inter perfectos
Et Justificata est sapientia a filijs suis.
Scientia inflat charitas edificat
Eadem vobis scribere mihi non pigrum vobis autem
Hoc autem dico vt nemo vos decipiat in sublimi-
Omnia probate quod bonum este tenete
Semper discentes et nunquam ad scientiam veritatis
Proprius ipsorum propheta
Testimonium hoc verum est
Tantam nubem testium.
Sit omnis homo velox ad audiendum tardus ad
Error novissimus pejor priore.
Quecunque ignorant blasphemant
Non credimus quia non legimus
Facile est vt quis Augustinum vincat viderit vtrum
veritate an clamore.
Bellum omnium pater
De nouueau tout est beau
De saison tout est bon
Dj danarj di senno et di fede
Ce ne manca che tu credj
Di mentira y saqueras verdad
_Folio 89, front_.
Magna Civitas magna solitude
light gaines make heuy purses
He may be in my paternoster indeed
But sure he shall neuer be in my Creed
Tanti causas sciat ilia furosis
What will yow?
For the rest
It is possible
Not the lesse for that
Yf yow stay thear
for a tyme
will yow see
what shalbe the end.
Yow take it right
All this while
Whear stay we? prima facie.
That agayne. more or less.
I find that straunge It is bycause
Not vnlike quasi vero
Yf that be so Best of all
Yt cometh to that
Hear yow faile
To meet with that
Bear with that
And how now
_Folio 89, front--continued_.
let it not displease yow
Yow putt me in mynd
I object, I demaund I distinguish etc.
A matter not in question
few woordes need
much may be said,
The mean the tyme
All will not serue
Yow haue forgott nothing.
I arreste yow thear
I cannot thinke that
I was thinking of that
I come to that
That is iust nothing
Se then how (for much lesse)
NOTE.--This folio is written in three columns. The first two are printed
on page 209, and this page forms the third column. The first line, "Of
grace," is written opposite the sixth line on page 209, "What will yow?"
_Folio 89, back_.
Non est apud aram Consultandem.
Sorti pater equus vtrique
Est quoddam [_sic_] prodire tenus si non datur vltra.
Quem si non tenuit magnis tamen excidit ausis
Conamur tenues grandia
Tentantem majora fere praesentibus equum.
Da facilem cursum atque audacibus annue ceptis
Neptunus ventis implevit vela secundis
Crescent illae crescetis Amores
Et quae nunc ratio est impetus ante fuit
Aspice venturo laetentur vt omnia seclo
In Academijs discunt credere
_Vos adoratis quod nescitis_
To gyue Awthors thear due as yow gyue Tyme his
dew w'ch is to discouuer troth.
Vos graeci semper pueri
Non canimus surdis respondent omnia syluae
populus volt decipi
_Scientiam loquimur inter perfectos
Et Justificata est sapientia a filijs suis_
Pretiosa in oculis domini mors sanctorum ejus
Felix qui potuit rerum cognoscere causas.
Magistratus virum iudicat.
Da sapienti occasionem et addetur ej sapienta
Vite me redde priorj
I had rather know then be knowne
_Folio 90, front_.
Orpheus in syluis inter Delphinas Arion
Inopem me copia fecit.
An instrument in tunyng
A yowth sett will neuer be higher.
like as children doe w'th their babies when they haue
plaied enowgh wth them they take sport to
Faber quisque fortune suae
Hinc errores multiplices quod de partibus vitae
singuli deliberant de summa nemo.
Vtilitas magnos hominesque deosque efficit auxilijs
quoque fauente suis.
Qui in agone contendit a multis abstinet
Quidque cupit sperat suaque illum oracula fallunt
Serpens nisi serpentem comederit non fit Draco
The Athenians holyday.
Optimi consiliarij mortuj
Cum tot populis stipatus eat
In tot populis vix vna fides
Odere Reges dicta quae dici iubent
Nolite confidere in principibus
Et multis vtile bellum.
Pulchrorum Autumnus pulcher
Vsque adeone times quern tu facis ipse timendum.
Dux femina facti
Res est ingeniosa dare
A long wynter maketh a full ear.
Declinat cursus aurumque uolubile tollit
Vnum augurium optimum tueri patriam
Bene omnia fecit
_Folio 90, back_.
Et quo quenque modo fugiatque feratque laborem edocet.
Non vlla laborum o virgo nova mi facies inopinave surgit;
Omnia praecepi atque animo mecum ante peregi.
Cultus major censu
Tale of y'e frogg that swelled.
Qui eget verseter in turba
While the legg warmeth the boote harmeth
Augustus rapide ad locum leniter in loco
My father was chudd for not being a baron.
Prowd when I may doe any man good.
I contemn few men but most thinges.
A vn matto vno & mezo
Tantene animis celestibus ire
Tela honoris tenerior
Alter rixatur de lana sepe caprina
Propugnat nugis armatus scilicet vt non
Sit mihi prima fides.
Nam cur ego amicum offendam in nugis
We haue not drunke all of one water.
Ilicet obruimur numer[o].
Numbring not weighing
let them haue long mornynges that haue not good
Constancy to remayne in the same state
_Folio 90, back--continued_.
The art of forgetting.
Rather men then maskers.
Variam dans otium mentem
_Folio 91, front_.
Veruntamen vane conturbatur omnis homo
Be the day never so long at last it ringeth to
Non possumus aliquid contra veritatem sed pro veritate.
Sapie[n]tia quoque perseueravit mecum
Magnorum fluuiorum navigabiles fontes.
Dos est vxoria lites
Haud numine nostro
Atque animis illabere nostris
Animos nil magne laudi egentes
Magnanimj heroes nati mehioribus annis
AEuo rarissima nostro Simplicitas
Qui silet est firmus
Si nunquam fallit imago
And I would haue thowght
Sed fugit interea fugit irreparabile temp[us]
Totum est quod superest
In a good beleef
Possunt quia posse videntur
Justitiamque omnes cupida de mente fugaru[nt]
Qui bene nugatur ad mensam sepe vocatur
faciunt et tedi[urn finitum?]
Malum bene conditum ne moveas
Be it better be it woorse
Goe yow after him that beareth the purse
Tranquillo quilibet gubernator
Nullus emptor difficilis bonum emit opsonium
Chi semina spine non vada discalzo
_Folio 91, back_.
Quoniam Moses ad duritiem cordis permi [sit] vobis
Non nossem peccatum nisi per legem.
Discite Justitiam monit;
Vbj testamentum ibi necesse est mors intercedat
Scimus quia lex bona est si quis ea vtatur legitime
Ve vobis Jurisperitj
Nee me verbosas leges ediscere nee me Ingrato
voces prostituisse foro.
fixit leges pretio atque refixit
Nec ferrea Jura Insanumque forum et populi
Miscueruntque novercae non innoxia verba
Jurisconsultj domus oraculum Civitatis
now as ambiguows as oracles.
Hic clamosi rabiosa forj
Jurgia vendens improbus
Iras et verba locat
In veste varietas sit scissura non sit
Plenitude potestatis est plenitudo tempestatis
Iliacos intra muros peccatur et extra
Prosperum et felix scelus virtus vocatur
Da mihi fallere da iustum sanctumque viderj.
Nil nisi turpe iuuat cure est sua cuique voluptas
Hec quoque ab alterius grata dolore venit
Casus ne deusne
_Folio 92, front_.
Ille Bioneis sermonibus et sale nigro
Existimamus diuitem omnia scire recte
Querunt cum qua gente cadant
Totus mu[n]dus in malingo positus
O major tandem parcas insane minori
forma dat esse
Nee fandj fictor Vlisses
Non tu plus cernis sed plus temerarius audes
Nec tibj plus cordis sed minus oris inest.
Invidiam placare paras virtute relicta
[Greek: ho polla klepsas oliga douk ekpheuxetai]
Botrus oppositus Botro citius maturescit.
Old treacle new losanges.
Soft fire makes sweet malt.
Good to be mery and wise.
Seeldome cometh the better.
He must needes swymme that is held vp by the chynne.
He that will sell lawne before he can fold it.
Shall repent him before he haue sold it.
No man loueth his fetters thowgh they be of gold.
The nearer the church the furder from God.
All is not gold that glisters.
Beggers should be no chuzers.
A beck is as good as a dieu vous gard.
The rowling stone neuer gathereth mosse.
Better children weep then old men.
_Folio 92, back_.
When bale is heckst boote is next.
Ill plaieng w'th short dag (taunting replie).
He that neuer clymb neuer fell.
The loth stake standeth long.
Itch and ease can no man please.
To much of one thing is good for nothing.
Ever spare and euer bare.
A catt may looke on a Kyng.
He had need be a wyly mowse should breed in the
Many a man speaketh of Rob. hood that neuer shott
in his bowe.
Batchelers wyues and maides children are well
God sendeth fortune to fooles.
Better are meales many then one to mery.
Many kisse the child for the nurses sake.
When the head akes all the body is the woorse.
When theeues fall owt trew men come to their good.
An yll wynd that bloweth no man to good.
All this wynd shakes no Corn.
Thear be more waies to the wood then one.
Tymely crookes the Tree that will a good Camocke be.
Better is the last smile then thefirst laughter.
No peny no pater noster.
Every one for himself and God for vs all.
_Folio 93, front_.
Long standing and small offring.
The catt knowes whose lippes she lickes.
As good neuer a whitt as neuer the better.
fluvius quae procul sunt irrigat.
As far goeth the pilgrymme as the post.
Cura esse quod audis.
[Greek: Erga neon Bomlai de meson enchai de geronton.]
Taurum tollet qui vitulum sustulerit.
Lunae radijs non maturescit Botrus.
Nil profuerit Bulbus; y'e potado will doe no good.
Dormientis rete trahit The sleeping mans nett draweth.
ijsdem e literis efficitur Tragedia et Comedia.
Tragedies and Comedies are made of one Alphabett.
Good wyne needes no bush.
Heroum filij noxae.
The sonnes of demy goddes demy men.
Alia res sceptrum alia plectrum
Abore dejecta quivis ligna colligit.
The hasty bytch whelpes a blind lytter.
We must beleeue the wytnesses are dead.
Thear is no trusting a woman nor a tapp.
_Folio 93, back_.
Not onely y'e Spring but the Michelmas Spring.
Virj iurejurandi pueri talis fallendj.
Ipsa dies quandoque parens quandoque noverca est.
Vbj non sis qui fueris non esse cur velis viuere.
Compendiaria res improbitas.
It is in action as it is in wayes; comonly the nearest
is the fowlest.
Lachrima nil citius arescit.
woorke when God woorkes.
A shrewd turn comes vnbidden.
Hirundines sub eodem tecto ne habeas.
A thorn is gentle when it is yong.
Aut regem aut fatuum nasci oportet (of a free jester).
Exigua res est ipsa Justitia.
Quae non posuistj ne tollas.
Dat veniam coruis vexat Censura columbas.
Lapsa lingua verum dicit.
The toung trippes vpon troth.
The evill is best that is lest [best?] knowen.
A mercury cannot be made of every wood (bvt
Princes haue a Cypher.
Anger of all passions beareth the age lest [best?].
One hand washeth another.
Iron sharpeth against Iron.
_Folio 94, front_.
Eyther bate conceyte or putt to strength.
faciunt et sphaceli Immunitatem.
He may be a fidler that cannot be a violine.
Milke the staunding Cowe. Why folowe yow the
He is the best prophete that telleth the best fortune.
Garlike and beans
like lettize like lips.
Mons cum monte non miscetur.
Hilles meet not.
A northen man may speake broad.
Haesitantia Cantoris Tussis.
No hucking Cator buyeth good achates.
Spes alit exules.
Romanus sedendo vincit.
Yow must sowe w'th the hand not w'th the baskett.
Mentiuntur multa cantores (few pleasing speches
It is noth if it be in verse.
Leonis Catulum ne alas.
He cowrtes a fury.
Dij laneos habent pedes (They leaue no prynt).
The weary ox setteth stronger.
A mans customes are the mowldes whear his fortune
_Folio 94, back_.
Beware of the vinegar of sweet wyne.
To a foolish people a preest possest.
The packes may be sett right by the way.
It is the Cattes nature and the wenches fault.
Coene fercula nostre.
Mallem conviuis quam placuisse cocis.
Al Confessor medico e aduocato.
Non si de tener [tena?] il ver celato.
Assaj ben balla a chi fortuna suona.
A yong Barber and an old phisicion.
Buon vin Cattina testa dice il griego.
Buon vin fauola lunga.
good watch chazeth yll aduenture.
Campo rotto paga nuoua.
Better be martyr then Confessor.
L'Imbassador no porta pena.
Bella botta non ammazza vecello.
A tender finger maketh a festred sore.
A catt will neuer drowne if she see the shore.
Qui a teme [temor?] a lie.
He that telleth tend [tond?] lyeth is eyther a foole
himself or he to whome he telles them.
Che posce a [ci?] Cana pierde piu che guadagna.
_Folio 95, front_.
Ramo curto vindimi lunga
Tien l'amico tuo con viso suo.
Gloria in the end of the salme
An asses trott and a fyre of strawe dureth not
Por mucho madrugar no amanece mas ayna
Erly rising hasteneth not y'e morning.
Do yra el Buey que no are?
Mas vale buena quexa que mala paga
Better good pleint then yll pay
He that pardons his enemy the amner shall haue
Chi offendi maj perdona
He that resolues in hast repentes at leasure
A dineros pagados brazos quebrados.
Mas uale bien de lexos que mal de cerca.
El lobo & la vulpeja son todos d'vna conseja
No haze poco quien tu mal echa a otro (oster before)
El buen suena, el mal buela.
At the trest of the yll the lest
Di mentira y sagueras verdad
Tell a lye to knowe a treuth
La oveja mansa mamma su madre y agena
En fin la soga quiebra por el mas delgado.
Quien ruyn es en su villa ruyn es en Sevilla
Quien no da nudo pierde punto
Quien al Ciel escupe a la cara se le buelve
Covetousenesse breakes the sacke
Dos pardales a tua espiga haze mala ligua
_Folio 95, back_.
Quien ha las hechas ha las sospechas.
La muger que no vera no haze larga tela
Quien a las hechas ha las sospechas.
Todos los duelos con pan son buenos.
El mozo por no saber, y el viejo por no poder dexan
las cosas pierder.
La hormiga quandose a de perder nasiente alas
De los leales se hinchen los huespitales.
Dos que se conoscan de lexos se saludan.
Bien ayrna quien mal come.
Por mejoria mi casa dexaria
Hombre apercebido medio combatido
He caries fier in one hand and water in the other
To beat the bush while another catches the byrd
To cast beyond the moone
His hand is on his halfpeny
As he brues so he must drinke
Both badd me God speed but neyther bad me wellcome
To bear two faces in a whood
To play cold prophett
To sett vp a candell before the devill
He thinketh his farthing good syluer
_Folio 96, front_.
Let them that be a cold blowe at the cold.
I haue seen as farre come as nigh
The catt would eat fish but she will not wett her foote
Jack would be a gentleman if he could speake french
Tell your cardes and tell me what yow haue wonne
Men know how the markett goeth by the markett men.
The keyes hang not all by one mans gyrdell.
While the grasse growes the horse starueth
I will hang the bell about the cattes neck.
He is one of them to whome God bedd heu
I will take myne altar in myne armes
for the mooneshyne in the water
It may ryme but it accords not
To make a long haruest for a lyttell corn
_Folio 96, back_.
Neyther to heavy nor to hott
Soft for dashing
Thowght is free
The deuill hath cast a bone to sett strife
To putt ones hand between the barke and the Tree
Who meddles in all thinges may shoe the gosling
Let the catt wynke and lett the mowse runne
He hath one pointe of a good haulke he is handy
The first poynt of a faulkener to hold fast
Ech finger is a thumb
Owt of Gods blessing into the warme sune.
At eve[r]y dogges barke to awake
A lone day
My self can tell best where my shoe wringes me
A cloke for the Rayne
To leap owt of the frieng pan into the fyre
Now toe on her distaff then she can spynne
To byte and whyne
The world runs on wheeles
He would haue better bread than can be made of whea[t]
To take hart of grace
_Folio 97, front_.
Thear was no more water then the shipp drewe
A man must tell yow tales and find yow ears
Haruest ears (of a busy man).
When thrift is in the feeld he is in the Towne
That he wynnes in y'e hundreth he louseth in the Shyre
To stumble at a strawe and leap over a bloc
To stoppe two gappes with one bush
To doe more than the preest spake of on Sunday
To throwe the hatchet after the helve
Yow would be ouer the stile before yow come at it.
Asinus avis (a foolish conjecture).
Herculis Cothurnos aptare infantj
To putt a childes leg into Hercules buskin
Tales of Jupiter dead withowt yssue
Juxta fluuium puteum fodere
To dig a well by the Ryuer side
A ring of Gold on a swynes snowte
To help the sunne with lantornes
In ostio formosus (gratiows to shew)
Myosobae flyflappers (offyciows fellowes)
[Greek: Adelphizein]. To brother it (fayre speech)
Jactare iugum To shake the yoke
When It was to salt to wash it with fresh water
(when speach groweth in bi ... to fynd taulke
_Folio 97, back_.
Mira de lente
Quid ad farinas.
Quarta luna Natj (Hercules nativity).
Utraque nutans sententia
The two that went to a feast both at dyner and
supper neyther knowne, the one a tall the other
a short man and said they would be one
anothers shadowe. It was replied it fell owt fitt,
for at noone the short man mowght be the long
mans shadowe and at night the contrary.
A sweet dampe (a dislike of moist perfume).
Wyld tyme on the grownd hath a sent like a Cypresse chest.
Panis lapidosus grytty bread
Plutoes Helmett; secrecy Invisibility
Omnem vocem mittere (from inchantmentes)
Tertium caput; (of one ouercharged that hath a burden
upon eyther showder and the 3rd. vpon his head).
Triceps mercurius (great cunyng).
Creta notare (chaulking and colouring).
_Folio 98, front_.
Vt phidie signum (presently allowed).
Jovis sandalium; (Jupiters slipper, a man onely
esteemed for nearnesse).
Pennas nido majore extendere.
Hic Rhodus Hic Saltus (exacting demonstracion).
Atticus in portum
Divinum excipio sermonem
With sailes and owres
To way ancre.
To keep strooke (fitt conjunctes).
To myngle heauen and earth together.
To stirr his curteynes (to raise his wyttes and sprites).
To iudg the Corne by the strawe.
Domj Conjecturam facere [Greek: oikothen eikax[ein]]
To divine with a sive (?)
Mortuus per somnum vacabis curis (of one that
interpretes all thinges to the best).
Nil sacrj es (Hercules to adonis).
Plumbeo iugulare gladio (A tame argument).
Locrensis bos (a mean present).
Ollaris Deus. (a man respected for his profession
withowt woorth in himself).
In foribus Vrceus; an earthen pott in the threshold
_Folio 98, back_.
To drawe of the dregges
Lightenyng owt of a payle
Durt tramped w'th bloude.
Ni pater esses
Vates secum auferat omen.
In eo ipso stas lapide vbj praeco praedicat, of one that
is abowt to be bowght and sold.
Lydus ostium claudit (of one that is gone away w'th
Vtranque paginam facit An auditors booke (of one
to whome both good and yll is imputed).
Non navigas noctu (of one that govern[s] himself
acaso [bycause] the starres which were wont to
be the shipmans direction appear but in the
It smelleth of the lampe
You are in the same shippe
Between the hamer and the Andville
Res est in cardine
Vndarum in vinis
Lepus pro carnibus (of a man persecuted for profite
and not for malice).
Nunquid es saul inter prophetas
A dog in the manger
[Greek: Oaekonous] (a howsedowe a dedman).
_Folio 99, front_.
I may be in their light but not in their way.
Felicibus sunt et timestres liberj.
To stumble at the threshold
Of the age now they make popes of
Nil ad Parmenonis suem
Aquila in nubibus (a thing excellent but remote).
Mox Sciemus melius vate
In omni fabula et Daedali execratio (of one made a
party to all complaintes).
Semper tibj pendeat hamus.
Res redit ad triarios.
Tentantes ad trojam pervenere greci
To mowe mosse (vnseasonable taking of vse or
Ominabitur aliquis te conspecto.
He came of an egge
_Folio 99, back_.
H [Greek: Ae tan ae epi tun]
Dormientis rete trahit
He castes another mans chaunces.
I neuer liked proceeding vpon Articles before bookes
nor betrothinges before mariages.
Lupus circa puteum chorum agit
The woolue danceth about the welle.
Spem pretio emere
Agricola semper in nouum annam diues.
To lean to a staffe of reed
Ad vinum disertj.
To knytt a rope of sand.
Pedum visa est via
To striue for an asses shade
To plowe the wyndes
Versuram soluere To euade by a greater mischeef.
Bulbos querit (of those that looke downe
Between the mowth and the morsell).
A Buskin (that will serve both legges
not an indifferent man but a dowble spye).
_Folio 100, front_.
Chameleon Proteus, Euripus.
Mu[l]ta novit uulpes sed Echinus unum magnum
Semper Africa aliquid monstrj parit
Ex eodem ore calidum et frigidum.
Ex se finxit velut araneus
Laqueus laqueum cepit.
Hinc ille lachrime; Hydrus in dolio
Dicas tria ex Curia (liberty vpon dispaire)
Argi Collis (a place of robbing).
Older then Chaos.
A bride groomes life
Samius comatus (of one of no expectacion and great
Adonis gardens (thinges of great pleasure but soone
Que sub axillis fiunt.
In crastinum seria.
To remooue an old tree
[Greek: Kymakophon] (of one that fretteth and vaunteth
boldnesse to vtter choler).
To bite the br[i]dle
Vnguis in vlcere
To feed vpon musterd
In antro trophonij (of one that neuer laugheth).
Arctum annulum ne gestato.
_Folio 100, back_.
Cor ne edito.
Cream of Nectar
Promus magis quam Condus.
He maketh to deep a furrowe
Amazonum cantile[n]a; The Amazons song
To sow curses.
To quench fyre with oyle
Ex ipso boue lora sumere.
Mala attrahens ad se vt Cesias nubes
Pryauste gaudes gaudium.
Bellerophontis literae (producing lettres or evidence
against a mans self).
To hold a woolf by the ears
fontibus apros, floribus austrum
Softer then the lippe of the ear
More tractable then wax
[Greek: Aeeritrimma]; frippon
To picke owt the Ravens eyes.
Improbitas musce (an importune that wilbe soone
awnswered but straght in hand agayne).
Argentangina, sylver mumpes
Lupi illum videre priores
To looke a gyven horse in the mowth.
_Folio 101, front_.
Vlysses pannos exuit.
Hoc jam et vates sciunt
Whear hartes cast their hornes
few dead byrdes fownd.
Prouolvitur ad milvios (a sickly man gladd of the
Odi memorem compotorem.
Numeris platonis obscurius
Dauus sum non Oedipus
Infixo aculeo fugere
Que sunt apud inferos sermones.
Et Scellij filium abominor (of him that cannot
endure the sound of a matter; from Aristocrates
Scellius sonne, whome a man deuoted to a
democracy said he could not abide for the
nearnesse of his name to an Aristocracy).
Water from the handes (such doctrynes as are
polluted by custome).
_Folio 101, back_.
famis campus an yll horse kept
The thredd is sponne now nedes the neadle
quadratus homo. a Cube.
fenum habet in Cornu.
Omnia secunda saltat senex.
[Greek: theon cheires]
Mopso Nisa datur
Riper then a mulbery.
Tanquam de Narthecio
Satis quercus; Enowgh of Acornes.
Haile of perle.
Viam qui nescit ad mare
To swyme withowt a barke
An owles egg.
Shake another tree
E terra spectare naufragia
In diem vivere
Vno die consenescere.
[Greek: Porro dios te K[a]i keraunou]
Omnium horarum homo
Spartae servi maxime servi
Non sum ex istis heriobus (_sic_) (potentes ad
_Folio 101, back--continued_.
Clavum clauo pellere
Extra querere sese
_Folio 102, front_.
Ne incalceatus in montes.
Sacra hec non aliter constant.
Leonis vestigia quaeris (ostentation with couardize)
Calidum mendacium optimum
Solus Currens vincit.
Salt to water (whence it came).
Canis seviens in lapidem
Semel rubidus decies pallidus.
Tanto buon che ual niente
So good, as he is good for nothing.
The crowe of the bellfry.
The vinegar of sweet wyne.
En vne nuit naist vn champignon.
He hath more to doe then the ovens in Christmas.
piu doppio ch' una zevola
Il cuopre vn altare & discuopre l' altro
He will hide himself in a mowne medowe
Il se crede segnar & se da de dettj ne gli occhi
He thinkes to blesse himself and thrustes his fingers into his eyes
_Folio 102, back_.
He is gone like a fay withowt his head
La sopra scritta e buona
La pazzia li fa andare |
La vergogna li fa restare |
Mangia santj & caga Diauolj.
Testa digiuna, barba pasciuta.
L'asne qui porte le vin et boit l'eau
lyke an ancher that is euer in the water and will
neuer learn to swyme
He doth like the ape that the higher he clymbes the
more he shews his ars.
Se no va el otero a Mahoma vaya Mahoma al otero.
Nadar y nadar y ahogar a la orilla
llorar duelos agenos
Si vos sabes mucho tambien se yo mi salm [o?]
Por hazer mi miel comieron mj muxcas
Come suol d'Invierno quien sale tarde y pone presto.
Lo que con el ojo veo con el dedo lo adeuino
Hijo no tenemos y nombre lo ponemos.
Por el buena mesa y mal testamento.
Era mejor lamiendo que no mordiendo
Perro del hortelano
Despues d'yo muerto ni vinna ni huerto
Perdj mj honor hablando mal y oyendo peor
Tomar asino que me lleue y no cauallo que me derruque.
_Folio 103, front_.
So many heades so many wittes
Happy man happy dole
In space cometh grace
Nothing is impossible to a willing hand
Of two ylles chuze the lest.
Better to bow then to breake
Of suffrance cometh ease
Two eyes are better then one.
Leaue is light
Better vnborn then vntaught.
All is well that endes well
Of a good begynyng comes a good ending
Thinges doone cannot be vndoone
Pride will haue a fall
Some what is better then nothing
Better be envyed then pytied
Every man after his fashon
He may doe much yll ere he doe much woorse
We be but where we were
Vse maketh mastery
Loue me lyttell love me long.
They that are bownd must obey
Foly it is to spurn against the pricke
Better sitt still then rise and fall.
Might overcomes right
No smoke w'th owt some fire
Tyme tryeth troth
Make not to sorowes of one
_Folio 103, back_.
Thear is no good accord
whear euery one would be a lord
Saieng and doing are two thinges
Better be happy then wise
Who can hold that will away
Allwaies let leasers haue their woordes
Warned and half armed
He that hath an yll name is half hanged
Frenzy Heresy and jalousy are three
That seeldome or neuer cured be
That the ey seeth not the hart rueth not
Better comyng to the ending of a feast then to the
begynyng of a fray
Yll putting a swoord in a mad mans hand
He goes farre that neuer turneth
Principium dimidium totius
Quot homines tot sententiae
Suum cujque pulchrum.
Que supra nos nihil ad nos
Ama tanquam osurus oderis tanquam amaturus.
Amicorum omnia communia
Vultu sepe leditur pietas
Fortes fortuna adjuuat.
Omne tulit punctum.
In magnis et uoluisse sat est
Difficilia quoee pulchra.
Turn tua res agitur paries cum proximus ardet
Et post malam segetem serendum est
Omnium rerum vicissitudo
_Folio 103 back--continued_.
In nil sapiendo vita jucundissima
Parturiunt montes nascetur ridiculus mus
Dulce bellum inexpertis
Naturam expellas furca licet vsque recurret.
_Folio 104, front_.
Quo semel est imbuta recens servabit odorem
Bis dat qui cito dat
Consciencia mille testes
In vino veritas
Bonae leges ex malis moribus
Nequicquam sapit qui sibj non sapit
Summum jus summa injuria
Sera in fundo parsimonia
Optimum non nasci
Musa mihi causas memora
Ambages sed summa sequar fastigia rerum
Causasque innecte morandj
Incipit effari mediaque in voce resistit
Sensit enim simulata voce locutam
quae prima exordia sumat
Haec alternantj potior sententia visa est.
Et inextricabilis error
Obscuris vera inuolvens.
Hae tibi erunt artes
Sic genus amborum scindit se sanguine ab vno.
Varioque viam sermone leuabat
Quid causas petis ex alto fiducia cessit
Quo tibj Diua mej
Causas nequicquam nectis inanes
quid me alta silentia cogis
Rumpere et obductum verbis vulgare dolorem
Nequicquam patrias tentasti lubricus artes
Do quod uis et me victusque uolensque remitto
_Folio 104, front--continued_.
Sed scelus hoc meritj pondus et instar habet
Quaeque prior nobis intulit ipse ferat
Officium fecere pium sed invtile nobis
Exiguum sed plus quam nihil illud erit
Sed lateant vires nec sis in fronte disertus
Sit tibj credibilis sermo consuetaque verba
praesens vt videare loqui
_Folio 104, back_.
Ille referre aliter sepe solebat idem
Nec uultu destrue verba tuo
Nec sua vesanus scripta poeta legat
Ars casum simulet
Quid cum legitima fraudatur litera uoce
Blaesaque fit iusso lingua coacta sono
Sed quae non prosunt singula multa iuuant.
Sic parvis componere magna solebam
paulo majora canamus
Non omnes arbusta iuuant
Et argutos inter strepere anser olores.
Causando nostros in longum ducis amores
Nec tibj tam sapiens quisquam persuadeat autor
Nec sum animj dubius verbis ea vincere magnum
quam sit et angustis hunc addere rebus honorem
Sic placet an melius quis habet suadere
Quamquam ridentem dicere verum
Sed tamen amoto quaeramus seria ludo
Posthabuj tamen illorum mea seria ludo
O imitatores seruum pecus
Quam temere in nobis legem sancimus iniquam.
mores sensusque repugnant
Atque ipsa vtilitas justj prope mater et equi
Excutiat sibj non hic cuiquam parcit amico
Nescio quod meritum nugarum totus in illis
Num quid vis occupo
_Folio 104, back--continued_.
Noris nos inquit doctj sumus
O te bollane cerebrj
Felicem aiebam tacitus.
_Folio 105, front_.
Fortius et melius magnas plerunque secat res.
At magnum fecit quod verbis graeca latinis }
Miscuit o serj studiorum }
Nil ligat exemplum litem quod lite resoluit
Nimirum insanus paucis videatur eo quod }
Maxima pars hominum morbo laborat eodem }
Neu si vafer vnus et alter
Insidiatorem praeroso fugerit hamo
Aut spem deponas aut artem illusus omittas
gaudent praenomine molles }
Renuis tu quod jubet alter
Qui variare cupit rem prodigaliter unam.
Et adhuc sub judice lis est.
Proijcit ampullas et sesquipedalia verba
Quid dignum tanto feret hic promissor hiatu
Atque ita mentitur sic veris falsa remittet
tantum series juncturaque pollet
Tantum de medio sumptis accedit honoris
Ergo fungar vice cotis acutum }
Reddere que possit ferrum exors ipsa secandj }
Haec placuit semel haec decies repetita placebit
Fas est et ab hoste docerj
Vsque adeo quod tangit idem est tamen vltima
Quis furor auditos inquit praeponere visis [distans].
Pro munere poscimus vsum
Inde retro redeunt idemque retexitur ordo
Nil tam bonum est quin male narrando possit
_Folio 105, back_.
Furor arma ministrat
Pulchrumque morj succurrit in armis
Aspirat primo fortuna laborj
Facilis jactura sepulchrj
Cedamus phoebo et monitj meliora sequamu[r]
Fata uiam invenient
Degeneres animos timor arguit
Viresque acquirit eundo
Et caput inter nubila condit
Et magnas territat vrbes
Tam ficti prauique tenax quam nuntia verj
Gaudens et pariter facta atque infecta canebat
Nusquam tuta fides
Et oblitos famae meliori amantes
Varium et mutabile semper
Furens quid femina possit
Quo fata trahunt retrahuntque sequamur
Quicquid id est superanda est omnis fortun[a] ferendo
Tu ne cede malis sed contra audentior i[to]
Hoc opus hic labor est
Nullj fas casto sceleratum insistere li[men]
Discite justitiam monitj.
Quisque suos patimur manes
Neu patrie validat in viscera vertite vires
Verique effeta senectus.
At patiens operum paruoque assueta iuuen[tus]
Juno vires animumque ministrat
Nescia mens hominum fatj sortisque futur[ae]
Et servare modum rebus sublata secund[is]
_Folio 106, front_.
Spes sibi quisque
Nee te vllius violentia vincat
Respice res hello varias
Credidimus lachrimis an et hae simulare docentur
He quoque habent artes quaque iubentur eunt
Quaecunque ex merito spes venit equa venit
Simplicitas digna fauore fuit
Exitus acta probat careat successibus opto
Quisquis ab euentu facta notanda putet.
Ars fit vbj a teneris crimen condiscitur annis
Jupiter esse pium statuit quodcunque iunaret
Non honor est sed onus
Si qua voles apte nubere nube parj
Perdere posse sat est si quern iuuat ista potestas.
Terror in his ipso major solet esse periclo
Quaeque timere libet pertimuisse pudet
An nescis longas regibus esse manus
Vtilis interdum est ipsis injuria passis
Fallitur augurio spes bona sepe suo
Quae fecisse iuuat facta referre pudet
Consilium prudensque animj sententia jurat
Et nisi judicij vincula nulla valent
Sin abeunt studia in mores
Illa verecundis lux est praebenda puellis
Qua timidus latebras speret habere pudor
Casta est quam nemo rogauit
Quj non vult fierj desidiosus amet
Gratia pro rebus merito debetur inemptis
Quern metuit quisque perisse cupit
_Folio 106, back_.
A late promus of formularies
_Folio 107, front_.
He that owt leaps his strength standeth not
He keeps his grownd; Of one that speaketh certenly
He lighteth well; of one that concludeth his speach
Of speaches digressive; This goeth not to the ende
of the matter; from the lawyers,
for learnyng sake.
Mot. of the mynd explicat in woords implicat in
I iudg best implicat in thowg. or of trial or mark
bycause of swiftnes collocat. & differe & to
make woords sequac.
_Folio 107, back_.
_Folio 108, front_.
Vpon Impatience of Audience
Verbera sed audi. The fable of the syrenes
Auribus mederj difficillimum. Placidasque viri deus obstruit
Noluit Intelligerevt bene aures
The ey is the gate of the
affection, but the ear
of the vnderstanding
Vpon question to reward evill w'th evill
Noli aemularj in malig- Cum perverso perverteris;
nantibus lex talionis
Crowne him wth tols (?) Yow are not for this world
Nil malo quam illos simil- Tanto buon cheval niente
les esse suj et me mej
Vpon question whether a man should speak or
Quia tacuj inveterauerunt Obmutuj et non aperuj os
ossa mea (speach may meum quoniam tu fecistj
now & then breed It is goddes doing.
smart in y'e flesh; but Posuj custodiam Orj
keeping it in goeth to meo cum consisteret
y'e bone). peccator aduersum me.
Credidi propter quod Ego autem tanquam
locutus sum. surdus nonaudiebam et
Obmutuj et humiliatus tanquam mutus non
sum siluj etaim a bonis aperiens os suum
et dolor meus re-
_Folio 108, back_.
Benedictions and maledictions
Et folium eius non defluet
Mella fluant illj ferat
et rubus asper amonium
Dij meliora pijs
_Folio 109, front_.
Per otium To any thing impertinent.
Speech yt hangeth not together nor is concludent.
Raw sylk; sand.
Speech of good & various wayght but not neerely
applied; A great vessell yt cannot come neer
Of one yt. rippeth things vp deepely. He shooteth
to high a compass to shoote neere.
Y'e law at Twicknam for mery tales
_Folio 109, back_.
_Folio 109c, front_.
_Folio 109d, back_.
_Folio 110, front_.
The syn against y'e holy ghost termd in zeal by one
of y'e fathers
Cause of Oths; Quarells; expence & vnthriftynes;
ydlenes & indisposition of y'e mynd to labors.
Art of forgetting; cause of society acquaintance
familiarity in frends; neere & ready attendance
in servants; recreation & putting of melancholy;
Putting of malas curas & cupiditates.
Games of Actiuity & passetyme; _sleight_ of Act. of
strength quicknes; quick of y'e hand; legg, the
whole mocion; strength of arme; legge; _Of
Activity of sleight_.
Of passetyme onely; of hazard, of play mixt
Of hazard; meere hazard Cunnyng in making yor.
game; Of playe: exercise of attention;
of memory; of Dissimulacion; of discrecion;
Of many hands or of receyt; of few; of quick
returne tedious; of praesent iudgment; of
Seuerall playes or Ideas of play.
Frank play; wary play, venturous not venturous
Oversight Dotage Betts Lookers on Judgment
groome porter; Christmas; Invention for hunger
Oddes; stake; sett;
He that folowes his losses & giueth soone over at
wynnings will never gayne by play
Ludimus incauti studioque aperimur ab ipso
_Folio 110, front--continued_.
He that playeth not the begynnyng of a game well at
tick tack & y'e later end at yrish shall never
Y'e lott; earnest in old tyme sport now as musik
owt of church to chamber
_Folio 110, back_.
_Folio 112, front_.
good betymes; bonum mane
bon iouyr. Bon iour; (bridgrome).
good day to me & good morow to yow.
I haue not sayd all my prayers till I haue bid yow
Late rysing fynding a bedde,
early risinge, summons to ryse
Diluculo surgere saluberrimum est.
Surge puer mane sed noli surgere vane.
Yow will not rise afore yor betters
Por mucho madrugar no amanece mas ayna.
Qui a bon voisin a bon matin
Stulte quid est somnus gelidae nisi mortis imago
Longa quiescendi tempora fata dabunt.
Albada; golden sleepe.
early vp & neuer y'e neere.
The wings of y'e mornyng.
The yowth & spring of y'e day
The Cock; The Larke.
_Folio 112, front--continued_.
Constant; abedd when yow are bedd; & vp when
yow are vp.
Trew mens howres.
Is this your first flight x I doe not as byrds doe for
I fly owt of my feathersz Is it not a fayre one
Sweet, fresh of y'e mornyng.
I pray god your early rysing doe yow no hurt;
Amen when I vse it.
I cannot be ydle vp as yow canne.
Yow could not sleep for your yll lodging; I cannot
gett owt of my good lodginge.
Yow have an alarum in your head
Block heads & clock heads.
There is Law against lyers a bedde.
Yow haue no warrant to ly a bedde
Synce yow are not gott vp turn vp.
Hott cocckles withowt sands
Well to forgett;
I wish yow may so well sleepe as yow may not fynd
yor yll lodging.
NOTE.--This folio is written in two columns. The second
column begins with the line, "I pray god your early rysing."
* * * * *
_Folio 112, back_.
_Folio 113, front_.
_Folio 113, back_.
fourmes & elegancyes.
_Folio 114, front_.
_Formularies Promus 27 Jan. 1595_.
Against con-} Es. conceyt of //
ceyt of diffi-}Tentantes ad Trojam peruenere Impossibili- //
culty or im-} ties & Ima- //
possibility ginations //
vt s[upra] ad id
Ess. indear- //
Abstinence}Qui in agone contendit a multis ing generali-//
negatiues } abstinet. ties & prae- //
vt s[upra] All the commaundments nega ad id
tiue saue two ad id //
Parerga; mouente sed nil pro- ad id. and
Curious; Busy extenuating //
without jug mouentes operosities, nil ad deuises & //
ment good summam. particulars.
direction Claudus I via ad id.
Direction}to give the grownd in bowling. //
vt sup[ra] Like tempring with phisike a ad id. //
good diett much better.
Zeal affection}Omni possum in eo qui me Idea. zeal
alacrity } confortat & good affec-//
tion ye e. //
vt s[upra] Possunt quia posse videntur ad id.
vt s[upra] Exposition of Not Overweenning
but ouerwilling. ad id. //
vt s[upra] Goddes presse; Voluntaries ad id. //
detraction Chesters wytt to depraue &
otherwise not wyse s. P. s. J.//
Hast In actions as in wayes the nearest Ind my stay//
ikpatience y'e fowlest
* * * * *
_Folio 114, back_.
_Folio 115, front_.
_Folio 115, back_.
fragments of Elegancyes
_Folio 116, front_.
//Quod adulationis nomine dicitur bonum quod
// obtrectationis malum.
Cujus contrarium majus; majus aut priuatio cujus
//Cujus opus et uirtus majus majus cujus minus minus
//quorum cupiditates majores aut meliores,
//quorum scientiae aut artes honestiores.
//quod uir melior eligeret vt injuriam potius pati
// quam facere.
//quod manet melius quam quod transit.
//quorum quis autor cupit esse bonum, cujus horret
//quod quis amico cupit facere bonum quod inimico
//Diuturniora minus diuturnis
//quod plures eligunt potius quam quod pauciores.
//quod controuertentes dicunt bonum perinde ac omnes
quod scientes et potentes, quod judicantes.
//Quorum praemia majora, majora bona, quorum
mulctae majores, majora mala.
Quas confessis et tertijs majoribus majora.
//quod ex multis constat magis bonum cum multi
// articulj bonj dissectj magnitudinem prae se ferunt
//Qua supra aetatem praeter occasionem aut oportuni-
// tate praeter naturam toe; praeter conditionem
// temporis praeter naturam personae vel instru-
// mentivel iuuamentimajora quam quae secundum.
_Folio, 116 back_.
//quae in grauiore tempore vtilia vt in morbo senectute
// aut aduersis.
//Ex duobus medijs quod propinquius est fruj
//Quae tempore futuro et vltimo quia sequens tempus
// evacuat praeterita
Antiqua novis noua antiquis
Consueta nouis noua consuetis
//quod ad veritatem magis quam ad opinionem Ejus
// ante, quae ad opinionem pertinet, ratio est ac
// modus, quod quis sj clam fore putaret non
//Polychreston vt diuitiae, robur, potentia, facultates
# Ex duobus quod tertio aequali adjunctum majus ipsa
# Quae non latent cum adsunt, quam quae latere
//quod magis ex necessitate vt oculus vnus lusco
//quod expertus facile reliquit
//quod quis cogitur facere malum
//quod sponte fit bonum
//quod bono confesso redimitur
* * * * *
_Folio 117, front_
In deliberatives and electives
_Folio 117, back_.
Cujus excusatio paratior est vel venia indulta inagis
_Folio 118, front_.
Melior est oculorum visio quam animj progressio
//Spes in dolio remansit sed non vt antedotum sed vt
// major morbus
Spes omnis in futuram vitam consumendus sufficit
praesentibus bonis purus sensus.
Spes vigilantis somnium; vitae summa breuis spem
nos uetat inchoare longam.
//Spes facit animos leues timidos inaequales
//Vidi ambulantes sub sole cum adolescente secundo
// qui consurget post eum.
//Imaginationes omnia turbant, timores multiplicant
// voluptates corrumpunt.
//Anticipatio timoressalubris ob inventionem remedij
// spei institit
Imminent futuro, ingrati in praeteritum semper
//Vitam sua sponte fluxam magis fluxam reddimus
per continuationes spe
Praesentia erunt futura non contra
* * * * *
_Folio 118, back_.
_Folio 119, front_.
_Folio 119, back_.
_Folio 120, front_.
The fallaxes of y'e 3 and y'e assurance of Erophil.
to fall well euery waye
Watry impressions, fier elementall fier aethereall.
Y'e memory of that is past cannot be taken from him.
All 3 in purchaze nothing in injoyeng.
_Folio 120, back_.
_Folio 121, front_.
_Folio 121, back_.
_Folio 122, front_.
// Quod inimicis nostris gratum est ac optabile vt
// _nobis_ eveniat malum, quod molestiae et terrorj
// est bonum.
Metuo danaos et dona ferentes
Hoc Ithacus velit et magno mercentur Atridae.
Both parties haue wyshed battaile
The Launching of y'e. Imposture by him that
Conciliam homines mala. a forein warre to appeas
parties at home
// Quod quis sibj tribuit et sumit bonum, quod in
// alium transfert malum
non tarn inuidiae impertiendae quam laudis com-
municandae gratia loquor.
// Quod quis facile impertit minus bonum quod quis
// paucis et grauatim impertit majus bonum
Te nunc habet ista secundum.
// Quod per ostentationem fertur bonum, quod per
// excusationem purgatur malum.
// Nescio quid peccati portet haec purgatio.
// Cuj sectae diuersae quae sibj quaeque praestantiam
// vendicat secundas tribuit melior singulis
// Secta Academicae quam Epicureus et stoicus sibi
// tantum postponit
_Folio 122, back_.
//Cujus exuperantia vel excellentia melior ejus et
// genus melius.
Bougeon de mars, enfant de paris.
Whear they take
Some thinges of lyttell valew but excellencye
Some more indifferent and after one sort.
//In quo periculosius erratur melius eo in quo erratur
// minore cum periculo.
//Quod rem integram seruat, melius eo a quo receptus
// non est potestatem enim donat potestas autem
The tale of the frogges that were wyshed by one in
a drowth to repayre to the bottome of a well,
ay (?) but if water faile thear how shall we gett
//Quod polychrestum est melius quam quod ad vnum
// refertur ob incertos casus humanos.
//Cujus contrarium priuatio malum bonum cujus
// bonum malum.
//In quo non est satietas neque nimium melius eo in
// quo satietas est
//In quo vix erratur melius eo in quo error procliuis
//Finis melior ijs quae ad finem;
//Cujus causa sumptus facti et labores toleratj
// bonum; si vt euitetur malum,
//Quod habet riuales et de quo homines contendunt
// bonum; de quo non est contentio malum.
Differ, inter fruj et acquirere.
_Folio 123, front_.
// Quod laudatur et praedicatur bonum quod occultatur
// et uituperatur malum.
// Quod etiam inimicj et maleuoli laudant valde bonum,
// quod etiam amicj reprehendunt magnum malum.
Quod consulto et per meliora judicia proponitur
// Quod sine mixtura malj melius quam quod refractum
// et non syncerum.
Possibile et facile bonum quod sine labore et paruo
tempore cont[ra] malum
Bona confessa jucundum sensu; comparatione.
suauia objecta sensuum;
Inducunt tranquillum sensum virtutes ob securitatem
et contemptum rerum humanarum; facultates
animk et rerum gerendarum ob spem et metum
subigendum; et diuiti ...
Ex aliena opinione; laus.
Quae propria sunt et minus communicata; ob honor,
quae continent, vt animalia vt plantae et amplius;
sed id amplius potest esse malj.
Congruentia, ob raritatem et genium et proprietatem
vt in familijs et professionibus
Quae sibj deesse quis putat licet sint exigua
_Folio 123, back_.
ad quae natura procliues sunt
quae nemo abjectus capax est vt faciat
Majus et continens minore et contento
Ipsum quod suj causa eligitur
quod omnia appetunt.
quod prudentiam adepti eligunt
quod efficiendi et custodiendj vim habet.
Cuj res bonae sunt consequentes.
maximum maximo ipsum ipsis; vnde exuperant ...
quae majoris bonj conficientia sunt ea majora sunt
quod propter se expetendum eo quod propter alios
Fall. in diuersis generibus et proportionibus
Finis non finis
Minus indigens eo quod magis indiget quod
paucioribus et facilioribus indiget
quoties ho (_sic_) sine illo fierj no (_sic_) potest, illud
sine hoc fierj potest illud melius
principium non principio; finis autem et principium
antitheta; non majus videtur principium quia
primum est in opere; contra finis quia primum
in mente; de perpetratore et consiliario.
Rarurn copiosis honores; mutton venison
Copiosum varit vsu: optimum aqua
difficiliora, facilioribus |
faciliora, difficilioribus |
_Folio 124, front_.
Quod magis a necessitate vt oculus vnus lusco.
Major videtur gradus priuationis quam diminutionis
Quae non latent cum adsunt majora quam que
Quod expertus facile reliquit malum, quod mordicus
In aliquibus manetur quia non datur regressus
Quae in grauiore tempore vtilia vt in morbo
The soldier like a coreselett; bellaria, et appetitiua,
redd hearing. Loue
Quod controuertentes dicunt bonum perinde ac
Sermon frequented by papists and puritans;
Matter of circumstance not of substance
boriae penetrabile frigus adurit
Cacus oxen forwards and backwards
_Folio 124, back_.
_Folio 125, front_.
_Folio 125, back_.
_Folio 126, front_.
Verb. et clausalae ad
et ad gratiam sparsam
et ad suitatem
Sat that; (for admitt that) It is like Sr. etc. putting
Peradventure can yow: sp. a man agayne into his
(what can yow) tale interruted
So much there is. fr.(neuer- Your reason
thelesse) I haue been allwaies at
See then bow. Sp. (Much his request;
lesse) His knowledg lieth about
Yf yow be at leasure fur- him
nyshed etc. as perhappes Such thoughts I would
yow are (in stead of are exile into into my
For the rest (a transition A good crosse poynt but
concluding) the woorst cinq a pase
The rather bycause con-
tynuing anothers speach He will never doe his tricks
To the end, sauing that,
whereas yet (contynu- A proper young man and
ance) and so of all kynds so will he be while he liues
In contemplation (in con- 2 of these fowre take them
sideracon) where yow will
Not praejudicing. I have knowne the tyme
With this (cum hoc quod and it was not half an
verificare vult) howre agoe
Without that (adsque hoc Pyonner in the myne of
_Folio 126, front--continued_.
for this tyme (when a man As please the painter
extends his hope or imag- A nosce teipsum (a chiding
inacion or beleefe to farre) or disgrace)
A mery world when such Valew me not y'e lesse by-
fellowes must correct cause I am yours.
(A mery world when the
simplest may correct).
Is it a small thing yt & (can
not yow not be content)
What els? Nothing lesse.
It is not the first vntruth I
have heard reported nor
it is not y'e first truth I
haue heard denied.
I will prooue X
why goe and prooue it
yf they be not corrected.
O my I. St.
Beleeue it not;
for a time
Mought it pleas god that
fr (I would to god) Neuer
may it please yow
As good as the best:
I would not but yow had
doone it (But shall I doe
* * * * *
NOTE.--This folio is written in three columns. The third column begins,
"It is a small thing."
_Folio 126, back_.
The sonne of some what y'e ayre of his behauior;
To frime (to Sp)
To cherish or endear;
To vndeceyue. Sp to dis-
deliuer and vnwrapped
To discount (To Cleere)
Brawned Seared) vn-
Vuelight (Twylight) band-
A third person (a broker)
A nose Cutt of; tucked vp.
His disease hath certen
To plaine him on
Ameled (fayned counterfett)
in y'e best kynd.
Having (?) the vpper
His resorts (his Conceyts)
It may be well last for it
hath lasted well
Those are great with yow
y't are great by yow
* * * * *
_Folio 126, back--continued_.
The Avenues; A back
Baragan; perpetuo Juuenis
A Bonance (a Caulme)
To drench to potion (to
Infistuled (made hollow
with malign deales).
_Folio 127, front_.
_Folio 127, back_.
Cursitours lament and cry
Verba interjectiua siue ad
_Folio 128, front_.
Semblances or popularities of good and evill w'th
their redargutions for Deliberacions
Cujus contrarium malum bonum, cujus bonum
Non tenet in ijs rebus quarum vis in temperamento
et mensura sita est.
Dum vitant stulti vitia in contraria currunt
X Media via nulla est quae nee amicos parit nee inimi-
Solons law that in states every man should declare
him self of one faction. Neutralitye:
Vtinam esses calidus aut frigidus sed quoniam tepidus
es eveniet vt te expuam ex ore meo.
Dixerunt fatui medium tenuere beatj
Cujus origo occasio bona, bonum; cujus mala malum.
Non tenet in ijs malis quae vel mentem informant,
vel affectum corrigunt, siue resipiscentiam in-
ducendo siue necessitatem, nec etiam in fortuitis.
No man gathereth grapes of thornes nor figges of
The nature of every thing is best consydered in the
Primum mobile turnes about all y'e rest of y'e Orbes.
A good or yll foundacion.
X Ex malis moribus bonae leges.
[Greek: pathaemata maaemata]
When thinges are at the periode of yll they turn
_Folio 128, front--continued_.
Many effectes like the serpent that deuoureth her
moother so they destroy their first cause as
inopia luxuria etc.
The fashon of D. Hert. to the dames of Lond. Your
way is to be sicker
Usque adeo latet vtilitas
Aliquisque malo fuit vsus in illo
_Folio 128, back_.
Quod ad bonum finem dirigitur bonum, quod ad
_Folio 129 front_.
_Folio 129 back_.
colors of good and euill
_Folio 130 front_.
Some choice Frensh Proverbes.
II a chie en son chapeau et puis s'en va couvert
Par trop debatre la verite se perd.
Apres besogne fait le fou barguine.
L'hoste et le poisson passes trois jours puent.
Le mort n'ha point d'amis, Le malade et l'absent
II est tost trompe qui mal ne pense.
La farine du diable s'en va moitie en son.
Qui prest a l'ami, perd an double.
C'est vn valett du diable, qui fait plus qu'on luy
Il n'est horologe plus iust que le ventre.
Mere pitieuse, fille rigueuse
II commence bien a mourrir qui abandonne son desir.
Chien qui abaye de loin ne mord pas.
Achete maison faite, femme a faire
Le riche disne quand il veut, le poure quand il peut.
Bien part de sa place qui son amy y lesse.
Il n'y a melieur mirroir que le vieil amy.
Amour fait beaucoup, mais l'argent fait tout.
L'amour la tousse et la galle ne se peuvent celer.
Amour fait rage, mais l'argent fait marriage.
Ma chemise blanche, baise mon cul tous les
Mieux vaut vn tenes, que deux fois l'aurez.
Craindre ce qu'on peut vaincre, est vn bas courage.
A folle demande il ne faut point de responce.
_Folio 130, front--continued_.
Qui manie ses propres affaires, ne souille point se
Argent receu les bras rompus.
Vn amoreux fait touiours quelque chose folastre.
Le povre qui donne au riche demande
Six heures dort l'escholier, sept y'e voyager, huict y'e
vigneron, et neuf en demand le poltron.
La guerre fait les larrons et la paix les meine au
Au prester couzin germaine, au rendre fils de putaine
Qui n'ha point du miel en sa cruche, qu'il en aye en
Langage de Hauts bonnetts.
Les paroles du soir ne sembles a celles du matin.
Qui a bon voisin a bon matin.
Estre en la paille jusque an ventre.
Il faut prendre le temps comme il est, et les gens
comme ils sont.
Il n'est Tresor que de vivre a son aise.
La langue n'a point d'os, et casse poitrine et dos.
Quand la fille pese vn auque, ou luy peut mettre
Il en tuera dix de la chandelle, et vingt du chandelier.
_Folio 130, back_.
Qui seme de Chardons recuielle des espines
Il n'est chasse que de vieux levriers.
Qui trop se haste en beau chemin se fourvoye.
Il ne choisit pas qui emprunt.
Ostez vn vilain an gibett, il vous y mettra.
Son habit feroit peur an voleur.
J'employerai verd et sec.
Tost attrappe est le souris, qui n'a pour tout qu'vn
Le froid est si apre, qu'il me fait battre le tambour
avec les dents.
Homme de deux visages, n'aggree en ville ny en
Perdre la volee pour le bound.
Homme roux et femme barbue de cinquante pas
Quand beau vient sur beau il perd sa beaute.
Les biens de la fortune passe comme la lune.
Ville qui parle, femme qui escoute, I'vne se prend,
lautre se foute.
Coudre le peau du renard, a celle du lyon.
Il a la conscience large comme la manche d'vn
Brusler la chandelle par les deux bouts.
Bon bastard c'est d'avanture, meschant c'est la
Argent content portent medecine.
Bonne renommee vaut plus que cincture doree.
_Folio 130, back--continued_.
Fille qui prend, se vend; fille qui donne s'abban-
Fais ce que tu dois, avien que pourra.
Il est tost deceu qui mal ne pense.
Vos finesses sont cousues de fil blanc, elles sont trop
Assez demand qui se plaint.
Assez demand qui bien sert.
Il ne demeure pas trop qui vient a la fin.
Secrett de dieux, secrett de dieux
Ton fils repeu et mal vestu, ta fille vestue et mal
Du dire an fait il y a vn grand trait.
Courtesye tardive est discourtesye.
Femme se plaint, femme se deult, femme est
malade quand elle veut--
Et par Madame Ste. Marie, quand elle veut, elle est
Quie est loin du plat, est prez de son dommage.
Le Diable estoit alors en son grammaire.
Il a vn quartier de la lune en sa teste.
Homme de paille vaut vne femme d'or.
Amour de femme, feu d'estoupe.
Fille brunette gaye et nette
Renard qui dort la mattinee, n'a pas la langue
_Folio 131, front_.
Tout est perdu qu'on donne au fol.
Bonnes paroles n'escorche pas la langue.
Pour durer il faut endurer
Qui veut prendre vn oiseau, qu'il ne l'effarouche.
Soleil qui luise au matin, femme qui parle latin,
enfant nourri du vin ne vient point a bonne fin.
Il peut hardiment heurter a la porte, qui bonnes
A bon entendeur ne faut que demy mot.
Qui fol envoye fol attend.
La faim chaisse le loup hors du bois.
Qui pen se prize, Dieu l'advise.
En pont, en planche, en riviere, valett devant,
L'oeil du maistre engraisse le chevall.
Qui mal entend, mal respond.
Mal pense qui ne repense.
Mal fait qui ne pairfait.
Si tous les fols portoient marrottes, on ne scauroit
pas de quell bois se chaufer
Mieux vaut en paix vn oeuf, qu'en guerre vn boeuf.
Couper l'herbe sous les pieds.
Toutes les heures ne sont pas meures.
Qui vit a compte, vit a honte.
Meschante parole jettee, va par toute alia volee.
Amour se nourrit de ieune chaire
Innocence porte avec soy sa deffence.
Il ne regard plus loin que le bout de son nez.
A paroles lourdes, aureilles sourdes.
_Folio 131, front--continued_
Ce n'est pas Evangile, qu'on dit parmi la ville.
Qui n'a patience n'a rien.
De mauvais payeur, foin ou paille
En fin les renards se troue chez le pelletier.
Qui prest a l'ami perd an double
Chantez a l'asne il vous fera de petz
Mieux vault glisser du pied, que de la langue.
Tout vient a point a chi peut attendre.
Il n'est pas si fol qu'il en porte l'habit.
Il est plus fol, qui a fol sens demand.
Nul n'a trop de sens, n'y d'argent.
En seurte dort qui n'a que perdre.
Le trou trop overt sous le nez fait porter soulier
A laver la teste d'vn Asne, on ne perd que le temps
et la lexive.
Chi choppe et ne tombe pas adiouste a ces pas.
_Folio 131, back_.
Amour, toux et fumee, en secrett ne sont demeuree.
Il a pour chaque trou vne cheville,
Il n'est vie que d'estre content.
Si tu veux cognoistre villain, baille luy la baggette
Le boeuf sale, fait trover le vin sans chandelle.
Le sage va toujours la sonde a la main.
Qui se couche avec les chiens, se leve avec de puces.
A tous oiseaux leur nids sont beaux
Ovrage de commune, ovrage de nul.
Oy, voi, et te tais, si tu veux vivre en paix.
Rouge visage et grosse panche, ne sont signes de
A celuy qui a son paste an four, on peut donner de
Au serviteur le morceau d'honneur.
Pierre qui se remue n'accuille point de mousse
Necessite fait trotter la vieille.
Nourriture passe nature.
La mort n'espargne ny Roy ny Roc.
En mangeant l' appetit vient.
Table sans sel, bouche sans salive
Les maladyes vient a cheval, et s'en returne a pieds.
Tenez chauds le pied et la teste, an demeurant
vivez en beste.
Faillir est vne chose humaine, se repentir divine,
Fourmage est sain qui vient de ciche main.
_Folio 131, back--continued_.
Si tu veux engraisser promptement, mangez avec
faim, bois a loisir et lentement.
A l'an soixante et douse, temps est qu'on se house.
Vin sur laict c'est souhait, lait sur vin c'est venin
Faim fait disner passetemps souper.
Le maux terminans en ique, font an medecine la
Au morceau restiffe esperon de vin.
Vn oeuf n'est rien, deux font grand bien, trois c'est
assez, quattre c'est fort, cinque c'est la mort.
Apres les poire le vin ou le prestre
Qui a la sante est riche et ne le scait pas.
A la trogne on cognoist l'yvrogne.
Le fouriere de la lune a marque le logis.
Vne pillule fromentine, vne dragme sermentine, et la
balbe d'vne galline est vne bonne medecine.
Il faut plus tost prendre garde avec qui tu bois et
mange, qu'a ce que tu bois et mange.
Qui tout mange le soir, le lendemain rogne son pain
Vin vieux, amy vieux, et or vieux sont amez en
* * * * *
_Folio 132, front_.
Qui veut vivre sain, disne pen et soupe moins.
Lever a six, manger a dix, souper a six, coucher a
dix, font l'homme vivre dix fois dix.
De tous poissons fors que la tenche, prenez les dos,
lessez le ventre.
Qui couche avec la soif, se leve avec la sante.
Amour de garze et saut de chien, ne dure si l'on ne
Il en est plus assotte qu'vn fol de sa marotte.
Qui fol envoye fol attende.
Pennache de boeuf.
Vn Espagnol sans Jesuite est comme perdis sans
C'est la maison de Robin de la vallee, ou il y a ny
pott an feu, ny escuelle lavee.
Celuy gouverne bien mal le miel qui n'en taste.
Auiourdhuy facteur, demaine fracteur.
II est crotte en Archidiacre.
Apres trois jours on s'ennuy, de femme, d'hoste, et
Il n'est pas eschappe qui son lien traine.
En la terre des aveugles, le borgne est Roy.
Il faut que la faim soit bien grande, quand les
loups mange l'vn l'autre.
Il n'est faut qu'vne mouche luy passe, par devant le
nez, pour le facher.
La femme est bien malade, quand elle ne se peut
tenir sur le dos.
* * * * *
_Folio 132, front--continued_.
Il n'a pas bien assise ses lunettes.
Cette flesche n'est pas sorti de son carquois.
L'affaire vas a quattre roues
C'est vn marchand qui prend l'argent sans center
Je vous payeray en monnoye de cordelier.
Vous avez mis le doit dessus.
S'embarquer sans bisquit.
Coucher a l'enseigne de l'estoile
On n'y trove ny trie ny troc.
Cecy n'est pas de mon gibier.
Joyeux comme sourris en graine
Il a beaucoup de grillons en la teste.
Elle a son Cardinall
Il est fourni du fil et d'esguille.
Chevalier de Corneuaille.
Angleterre le Paradis de femmes, le pourgatoire de
valetts, l'enfer de chevaux.
Le mal An entre en nageant.
Qui a la fievre an Mois de May, le rest de l'an vit
sain et gay.
Fol a vint cinque carrattes
Celuy a bon gage du Chatte qui en tient la peau.
Il entend autant comme truye en espices
Nul soulas humaine sans helas
In (_sic_) n'est pas en seurete qui ne mescheut onques.
_Folio 133, front_.
_Folio 133, back_.
Some choice Frensh Prover[bs.]
[Illustration: Tail Piece from Spencer's "Faerie Queen." 1617]
 Digges really means "When Time dissolves thy Stratford Mask".
 Through the whole play the fact that Puntarvolo represents Bacon is
continually apparent to the instructed reader. Note especially Act II.,
Scene 3, where Puntarvolo addresses his wife, who appears at a window,
in a parody of the address of Romeo to Juliet. Again in Act II., Scene 3,
Carlo Buffone calls Puntarvolo "A yeoman pheuterer." Pheuter or feuter
means a rest or supportfor a spear--which is informing.
 This fact so puzzling to Halliwell-Phillipps is fully explained when
it is realised that William Shackspere of Stratford could neither read
 The words attriuted to Apollo, are of course spoken by his Chancellor
Bacon. See note on the number 33 on page 112.
 While I am perfectly satisfied that the above explanation of the
meaning of the expression "All numbers" is the correct one; I am not
unaware that at the date at which the Discoveries appeared "All numbers"
would be generally understood in its classical sense; Jonson of course
not being permitted to speak too plainly. He was foreman of Bacon's good
pens and one of his "left-hands"; as any visitor to Westminster Abbey may
learn, the attendants there being careful to point out that the sculptor
has "accidentally" clothed Jonson's Bust in a left-handed coat. (With
respect to the meaning of this the reader is referred to Plate 33, page
131.) Thus far was written and in print when the writer's attention was
called to the Rev. George O Neill's little brochure, "Could Bacon have
written the plays?" in which in a note to page 14 we find "Numeri" in
Latin, "numbers" in English, applied to literature mean nothing else
than verse, and even seem to exclude prose. Thus Tibullus writes,
"_Numeris ille hic pede libero scribit_" (one writes in verse another in
prose), and Shakespeare has the same antithesis in "Love's Labour Lost"
(iv., 3), "These numbers I will tear and write in prose." Yet all this
does not settle the matter, for "Numeri" is also used in the sense
merely of "parts". Pliny speaks of a prose work as perfect in all its
parts, "_Omnibus numeris absolutus_," and Cicero says of a plan of life,
"_Omnes numeros virtutis continet_" (it contains every element of
virtue). So that Jonson may have merely meant to say in slightly
pedantic phrase that Bacon had passed away all parts fulfilled.
 Under what is now known as "Rask's law" the Roman F becomes B in the
Teutonic languages: fero, bear; frater, brother; feru, brew; flo, blow,
etc., etc., shewing that the Roman F was by no means really a mute.
 See Page 104.
 The number 33 too obviously represented Bacon, and therefore 53
which spells sow (S 18, O 14, W 21 = 53) was substituted for 33. Scores
of examples can be found where on page 53 some reference is made to
Bacon in books published under various names, especially in the Emblem
Books. In many cases page 55 is _misprinted_ as 53. In the Shakespeare
Folio 1623 on the first page 53 we read "Hang Hog is latten for Bacon,"
and on the second page 53 we find "Gammon of Bacon." When the seven
extra plays were added in thethird folio 1664 in each of the two new
pages 53 appears "St. Albans." In the fifth edition, published by Kowe
in 1709, on page 53 we read "deeper than did ever Plummet sound I'll
drown my Book"; and on page 55 _misprinted_ 53 (the only mispagination
in the whole book of 3324 pages) we find "I do ... require My Dukedom of
thee, which perforce I know Thou must restore." In Bacon's "Advancement
of Learning," first English edition, 1640, on page 55 _misprinted_ 53 in
the margin in capital letters (the only name in capital letters in the
whole book) we read "BACON." In Florio's "Second Frutes," 1591, on page
53, is "slice of bacon" and also "gammon of bakon," to shew that Bacon
may be misspelled as it is in Drayton's "Polyolbion," 1622, where on
page 53 we find _Becanus_. A whole book could be filled with similar
 About A.D. 1300 benefit of clergy was extended to all males who
could read. In 1487 it was enacted that mere laymen should have the
benefit only once and should be branded on the thumb to shew they had
once had it. _Whimsies_, 1623, p. 69, tells us: "If a prisoner, by help
of a compassionate prompter, hack out his neck verse (Psalm li. _v_. i
in Latin) and be admitted to his clergy, the jailors have a cold iron
in store if his purse be hot, but if not, a hot iron that his fist may
_Fiz_." Benefit of clergy was not totally abolished till 1827.
 In 1599 Sir John Hayward, LL.D., brought out "The Life and raigne of
King Henrie IIII extending to the end of the first yeare of his raigne."
This little book contains an account of the trial of Richard II., and was
dedicated to the Earl of Essex in very encomiastic terms. It irritated
Queen Elizabeth in the highest degree, and she clapped Hayward into
prison and employed Sir Francis Bacon to search his book for treason.
(Lowndes, Bohn, p. 1018). The story carefully read reveals the fact that
it was really the play rather than the book which enraged Queen Elizabeth.
 The appearance of Shakespeare's name in the list of Actors in Ben
Jonson's plays and in the plays known as Shakespeare's was, of course,
part of the plot to place Shakespeare's name in a prominent position
while the pseudonym had to be preserved.
 Facsimiles of law clerks' writing of the name "John Shakespeare,"
are given in Plate 40, Page 169. They are taken from Halliwell-Phillipps'
"Outlines of the Life of Shakespeare," 1889, vol. 2, pp. 233 and 236. In
the first two examples the name is written "Shakes," followed by an
exactly similar scroll and dash to complete the name. In Saunders'
"Ancient Handwriting," 1909, page 24, we are shown that such a "scroll
and dash" represents "per" "par," and "por"; and in Wright's "Court
Handwriting restored" we find that in the most perfectly formed script
a "p" with a dash through the lower part similarly represented "per,"
"par," and "por," this is repeated in Thoyts' "How to decipher and study
old documents," and the same information is given in numerous other
works. There is therefore no possible excuse for Dr. Wallace's blundering.
 A facsimile example of the way in which the law clerk wrote "Shaxper"
is shewn in the third line of Plate 40, Page 169, where it will be seen
that the writer uses a similar "X".
 Holinshed's Chronicles (1557) state that "Montioy, king-at-arms,
was sent to the King of England to defie him as the enemie of France,
and to tell him that he should shortlie have battell." Moreover,
"Montioy" is not the personal name, but the official title of a Herald
of France, just as "Norroy" is not a personal name, but the official
title of one of the three chief Heralds of the College of Arms of
 He never was a manager.
 From the Introduction of "The Famous Historie of Troylus and
Cresseid, by William Shakespeare," 1609. This play as the above
Introduction says was never acted.
 'well' has been struck out.
 'Quin,' this may be 'quis.'
 This is difficult to read. It may be "faciunt et tedia funera."
 This is difficult to read. It may be "fero danid es."
 "Sedeant." This word is doubtful. It may be "tedeant," "te deum" is
not an impossible reading.
 "Num" may by read as "Nunc."
 "Validat" may be read "Validas".
 "Swear," this may be read "Sweat."
 The side note "Direction generall" has been struck out in the MS.
 s. P. s. J. may be read s R s. f.
 "ante," this may be read "aute" = "autem." 2 "ipsa" this may be
 "Timores" may be read "timoris".
 "Institit" = insistit.
 "To frime (to Sp." this line may read, "To trime) to Suse Sp."
 [This is an endorsement across the page.]
 "balbe" may be read "balle."
 For "Il n'est faut" may be read "Il n'en faut."
End of the Project Gutenberg EBook of Bacon is Shake-Speare
by Sir Edwin Durning-Lawrence
*** END OF THE PROJECT GUTENBERG EBOOK BACON IS SHAKE-SPEARE ***
This file should be named 8bshk10.txt or 8bshk10.zip
Corrected EDITIONS of our eBooks get a new NUMBER, 8bshk11.txt
VERSIONS based on separate sources get new LETTER, 8bshk10a.txt
Produced by Jonathan Ingram, Graham Smith,
Tapio Riikonen and the Online Distributed Proofreading Team.
Project Gutenberg eBooks are often created from several printed
editions, all of which are confirmed as Public Domain in the US
unless a copyright notice is included. Thus, we usually do not
keep eBooks in compliance with any particular paper edition.
We are now trying to release all our eBooks one year in advance
of the official release dates, leaving time for better editing.
Please be encouraged to tell us about any error or corrections,
even years after the official publication date.
Please note neither this listing nor its contents are final til
midnight of the last day of the month of any such announcement.
The official release date of all Project Gutenberg eBooks is at
Midnight, Central Time, of the last day of the stated month. A
preliminary version may often be posted for suggestion, comment
and editing by those who wish to do so.
Most people start at our Web sites at:
These Web sites include award-winning information about Project
Gutenberg, including how to donate, how to help produce our new
eBooks, and how to subscribe to our email newsletter (free!).
Those of you who want to download any eBook before announcement
can get to them as follows, and just download by date. This is
also a good way to get them instantly upon announcement, as the
indexes our cataloguers produce obviously take a while after an
announcement goes out in the Project Gutenberg Newsletter.
Or /etext02, 01, 00, 99, 98, 97, 96, 95, 94, 93, 92, 92, 91 or 90
Just search by the first five letters of the filename you want,
as it appears in our Newsletters.
Information about Project Gutenberg (one page)
We produce about two million dollars for each hour we work. The
time it takes us, a rather conservative estimate, is fifty hours
to get any eBook selected, entered, proofread, edited, copyright
searched and analyzed, the copyright letters written, etc. Our
projected audience is one hundred million readers. If the value
per text is nominally estimated at one dollar then we produce $2
million dollars per hour in 2002 as we release over 100 new text
files per month: 1240 more eBooks in 2001 for a total of 4000+
We are already on our way to trying for 2000 more eBooks in 2002
If they reach just 1-2% of the world's population then the total
will reach over half a trillion eBooks given away by year's end.
The Goal of Project Gutenberg is to Give Away 1 Trillion eBooks!
This is ten thousand titles each to one hundred million readers,
which is only about 4% of the present number of computer users.
Here is the briefest record of our progress (* means estimated):
eBooks Year Month
1 1971 July
10 1991 January
100 1994 January
1000 1997 August
1500 1998 October
2000 1999 December
2500 2000 December
3000 2001 November
4000 2001 October/November
6000 2002 December*
9000 2003 November*
10000 2004 January*
The Project Gutenberg Literary Archive Foundation has been created
to secure a future for Project Gutenberg into the next millennium.
We need your donations more than ever!
As of February, 2002, contributions are being solicited from people
and organizations in: Alabama, Alaska, Arkansas, Connecticut,
Delaware, District of Columbia, Florida, Georgia, Hawaii, Illinois,
Indiana, Iowa, Kansas, Kentucky, Louisiana, Maine, Massachusetts,
Michigan, Mississippi, Missouri, Montana, Nebraska, Nevada, New
Hampshire, New Jersey, New Mexico, New York, North Carolina, Ohio,
Oklahoma, Oregon, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, South Carolina, South
Dakota, Tennessee, Texas, Utah, Vermont, Virginia, Washington, West
Virginia, Wisconsin, and Wyoming.
We have filed in all 50 states now, but these are the only ones
that have responded.
As the requirements for other states are met, additions to this list
will be made and fund raising will begin in the additional states.
Please feel free to ask to check the status of your state.
In answer to various questions we have received on this:
We are constantly working on finishing the paperwork to legally
request donations in all 50 states. If your state is not listed and
you would like to know if we have added it since the list you have,
While we cannot solicit donations from people in states where we are
not yet registered, we know of no prohibition against accepting
donations from donors in these states who approach us with an offer to
International donations are accepted, but we don't know ANYTHING about
how to make them tax-deductible, or even if they CAN be made
deductible, and don't have the staff to handle it even if there are
Donations by check or money order may be sent to:
Project Gutenberg Literary Archive Foundation
1739 University Ave.
Oxford, MS 38655-4109
Contact us if you want to arrange for a wire transfer or payment
method other than by check or money order.
The Project Gutenberg Literary Archive Foundation has been approved by
the US Internal Revenue Service as a 501(c)(3) organization with EIN
[Employee Identification Number] 64-622154. Donations are
tax-deductible to the maximum extent permitted by law. As fund-raising
requirements for other states are met, additions to this list will be
made and fund-raising will begin in the additional states.
We need your donations more than ever!
You can get up to date donation information online at:
If you can't reach Project Gutenberg,
you can always email directly to:
Michael S. Hart <email@example.com>
Prof. Hart will answer or forward your message.
We would prefer to send you information by email.
**The Legal Small Print**
***START**THE SMALL PRINT!**FOR PUBLIC DOMAIN EBOOKS**START***
Why is this "Small Print!" statement here? You know: lawyers.
They tell us you might sue us if there is something wrong with
your copy of this eBook, even if you got it for free from
someone other than us, and even if what's wrong is not our
fault. So, among other things, this "Small Print!" statement
disclaims most of our liability to you. It also tells you how
you may distribute copies of this eBook if you want to.
*BEFORE!* YOU USE OR READ THIS EBOOK
By using or reading any part of this PROJECT GUTENBERG-tm
eBook, you indicate that you understand, agree to and accept
this "Small Print!" statement. If you do not, you can receive
a refund of the money (if any) you paid for this eBook by
sending a request within 30 days of receiving it to the person
you got it from. If you received this eBook on a physical
medium (such as a disk), you must return it with your request.
ABOUT PROJECT GUTENBERG-TM EBOOKS
This PROJECT GUTENBERG-tm eBook, like most PROJECT GUTENBERG-tm eBooks,
is a "public domain" work distributed by Professor Michael S. Hart
through the Project Gutenberg Association (the "Project").
Among other things, this means that no one owns a United States copyright
on or for this work, so the Project (and you!) can copy and
distribute it in the United States without permission and
without paying copyright royalties. Special rules, set forth
below, apply if you wish to copy and distribute this eBook
under the "PROJECT GUTENBERG" trademark.
Please do not use the "PROJECT GUTENBERG" trademark to market
any commercial products without permission.
To create these eBooks, the Project expends considerable
efforts to identify, transcribe and proofread public domain
works. Despite these efforts, the Project's eBooks and any
medium they may be on may contain "Defects". Among other
things, Defects may take the form of incomplete, inaccurate or
corrupt data, transcription errors, a copyright or other
intellectual property infringement, a defective or damaged
disk or other eBook medium, a computer virus, or computer
codes that damage or cannot be read by your equipment.
LIMITED WARRANTY; DISCLAIMER OF DAMAGES
But for the "Right of Replacement or Refund" described below,
 Michael Hart and the Foundation (and any other party you may
receive this eBook from as a PROJECT GUTENBERG-tm eBook) disclaims
all liability to you for damages, costs and expenses, including
legal fees, and  YOU HAVE NO REMEDIES FOR NEGLIGENCE OR
UNDER STRICT LIABILITY, OR FOR BREACH OF WARRANTY OR CONTRACT,
INCLUDING BUT NOT LIMITED TO INDIRECT, CONSEQUENTIAL, PUNITIVE
OR INCIDENTAL DAMAGES, EVEN IF YOU GIVE NOTICE OF THE
POSSIBILITY OF SUCH DAMAGES.
If you discover a Defect in this eBook within 90 days of
receiving it, you can receive a refund of the money (if any)
you paid for it by sending an explanatory note within that
time to the person you received it from. If you received it
on a physical medium, you must return it with your note, and
such person may choose to alternatively give you a replacement
copy. If you received it electronically, such person may
choose to alternatively give you a second opportunity to
receive it electronically.
THIS EBOOK IS OTHERWISE PROVIDED TO YOU "AS-IS". NO OTHER
WARRANTIES OF ANY KIND, EXPRESS OR IMPLIED, ARE MADE TO YOU AS
TO THE EBOOK OR ANY MEDIUM IT MAY BE ON, INCLUDING BUT NOT
LIMITED TO WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY OR FITNESS FOR A
Some states do not allow disclaimers of implied warranties or
the exclusion or limitation of consequential damages, so the
above disclaimers and exclusions may not apply to you, and you
may have other legal rights.
You will indemnify and hold Michael Hart, the Foundation,
and its trustees and agents, and any volunteers associated
with the production and distribution of Project Gutenberg-tm
texts harmless, from all liability, cost and expense, including
legal fees, that arise directly or indirectly from any of the
following that you do or cause:  distribution of this eBook,
 alteration, modification, or addition to the eBook,
or  any Defect.
DISTRIBUTION UNDER "PROJECT GUTENBERG-tm"
You may distribute copies of this eBook electronically, or by
disk, book or any other medium if you either delete this
"Small Print!" and all other references to Project Gutenberg,
 Only give exact copies of it. Among other things, this
requires that you do not remove, alter or modify the
eBook or this "small print!" statement. You may however,
if you wish, distribute this eBook in machine readable
binary, compressed, mark-up, or proprietary form,
including any form resulting from conversion by word
processing or hypertext software, but only so long as
[*] The eBook, when displayed, is clearly readable, and
does *not* contain characters other than those
intended by the author of the work, although tilde
(~), asterisk (*) and underline (_) characters may
be used to convey punctuation intended by the
author, and additional characters may be used to
indicate hypertext links; OR
[*] The eBook may be readily converted by the reader at
no expense into plain ASCII, EBCDIC or equivalent
form by the program that displays the eBook (as is
the case, for instance, with most word processors);
[*] You provide, or agree to also provide on request at
no additional cost, fee or expense, a copy of the
eBook in its original plain ASCII form (or in EBCDIC
or other equivalent proprietary form).
 Honor the eBook refund and replacement provisions of this
"Small Print!" statement.
 Pay a trademark license fee to the Foundation of 20% of the
gross profits you derive calculated using the method you
already use to calculate your applicable taxes. If you
don't derive profits, no royalty is due. Royalties are
payable to "Project Gutenberg Literary Archive Foundation"
the 60 days following each date you prepare (or were
legally required to prepare) your annual (or equivalent
periodic) tax return. Please contact us beforehand to
let us know your plans and to work out the details.
WHAT IF YOU *WANT* TO SEND MONEY EVEN IF YOU DON'T HAVE TO?
Project Gutenberg is dedicated to increasing the number of
public domain and licensed works that can be freely distributed
in machine readable form.
The Project gratefully accepts contributions of money, time,
public domain materials, or royalty free copyright licenses.
Money should be paid to the:
"Project Gutenberg Literary Archive Foundation."
If you are interested in contributing scanning equipment or
software or other items, please contact Michael Hart at:
[Portions of this eBook's header and trailer may be reprinted only
when distributed free of all fees. Copyright (C) 2001, 2002 by
Michael S. Hart. Project Gutenberg is a TradeMark and may not be
used in any sales of Project Gutenberg eBooks or other materials be
they hardware or software or any other related product without
*END THE SMALL PRINT! FOR PUBLIC DOMAIN EBOOKS*Ver.02/11/02*END*